BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

Finnish

Contributed by Ksenia Shagal (Academia.edu profile)

K.S.'s photo

How to cite

Shagal, Ksenia. 2021. Bivalent patterns in Finnish. In: Say, Sergey (ed.). BivalTyp: Typological database of bivalent verbs and their encoding frames. St. Petersburg: Institute for Linguistic Studies, RAS. (Data first published on July 24, 2021; last revised on July 26, 2021.) (Available online at https://www.bivaltyp.info, Accessed on .)

Basic info

Data

Subset examples by valency pattern
Subset examples by locus

1. feel pain särkeä

Valency pattern: ADE_PART
X: ADE
Y: PART
Locus: XY
Peka-lla särk-ee pää-tä
pn - ade ache- prs .3 sg head- part
‘Pekka has a headache.’

2. have (illness) olla

Valency pattern: ADE_NOM
X: ADE
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Peka-lla on flunssa
pn - ade be. prs .3 sg flu. nom
‘Pekka has the flu.’

3. be afraid pelätä

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka pelkä-ä koira-a
pn be.afraid- prs .3 sg dog- part
‘Pekka is afraid of the dog.’

4. throw heittää

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka heitt-i kiv-en
pn . nom throw- pst .3 sg stone- gen
‘Pekka threw a stone.’

5. have enough tarpeeksi + COP

Valency pattern: ADE_PART
X: ADE
Y: PART
Locus: XY
Peka-lla on tarpeeksi raha-a
pn - ade be. prs .3 sg enough money- part
‘Pekka has enough money.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

6. resemble näköinen + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Pekka on Mati-n / hänen näköinen
pn . nom be. prs .3 sg pn - gen / he. gen similar
‘Pekka resembles Matti / him.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

7. believe uskoa

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka usko-o Matti-a
pn . nom believe- prs .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka believes Matti.’

8. take ottaa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka ott-i kirja-n kirjahylly-ltä
pn . nom take- pst .3 sg book- gen bookshelf- abl
‘Pekka took a book from the shelf.’

9. see nähdä

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka näke-e talo-n
pn . nom see- prs .3 sg house- gen
‘Pekka sees a house.’

10. influence vaikuttaa

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
ikä vaikutta-a muisti-in
age. nom influence- prs .3 sg memory- ill
‘Age influences memory.’

11. encounter tavata

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka tapa-si Mati-n
pn . nom encounter- pst .3 sg pn - gen
‘Pekka encountered Matti’

12. enter astua

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
Pekka astu-i talo-on
pn . nom enter- pst .3 sg house- ill
‘Pekka entered the house.’

13. win voittaa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka voitt-i Mati-n
pn . nom win- pst .3 sg pn - gen
‘Pekka beat Matti’

14. go out poistua

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Pekka poistu-i talo-sta
pn . nom go.out- pst .3 sg house- ela
‘Pekka went out of the house.’

15. drive ajaa

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka aj-aa lehmä-ä pello-lle
pn . nom drive- prs .3 sg cow- part field- all
‘Pekka is driving the cow to the pasture.’

16. bend taivuttaa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka taivutt-i oksa-n
pn . nom bend- pst .3 sg branch- gen
‘Pekka bent the branch.’

17. tell sanoa

Valency pattern: NOM_ALL
X: NOM
Y: ALL
Locus: Y
Pekka san-oi Mati-lle:
pn . nom say- pst .3 sg pn - all
‘Pekka told Matti: ...’

18. hold pitää

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka pit-ää kirja-a käde-ssä-än
pn . nom hold- prs .3 sg book- part hand- ine - poss .3 sg
‘Pekka is holding a book in his hand.’

19. catch up ottaa kiinni

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka ott-i Mati-n kiinni
pn . nom take- pst .3 sg pn - gen shut
‘Pekka caught up with Matti’

20. milk lypsää

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka lyps-i lehmä-n
pn . nom milk- pst .3 sg cow- gen
‘Pekka milked the cow.’

21. reach saavuttaa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka saavutt-i ranna-n
pn . nom reach- pst .3 sg bank- gen
‘Pekka reached the bank.’

22. touch koskea

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
Pekka kosk-i seinä-än
pn . nom touch- pst .3 sg wall- ill
‘Pekka touched the wall.’

23. fight tapella

Valency pattern: NOM_GENkanssa
X: NOM
Y: GENkanssa
Locus: Y
Pekka tappel-ee Mati-n kanssa
pn . nom fight- prs .3 sg pn - gen with
‘Pekka is fighting with Matti’

24. be friends *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pekka ja Matti ovat ystäv-i-ä
pn . nom and pn . nom be. prs .3 pl friend- pl - part
‘Pekka is friends with Matti.’
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP.

25. think ajatella

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka ajattel-ee Matti-a
pn . nom think- prs .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka is thinking about Matti’

26. eat syödä

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka söi omena-n
pn . nom eat. pst .3 sg apple- gen
‘Pekka ate an apple.’

27. fry paistaa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka paist-oi kala-n
pn . nom fry- pst .3 sg fish- gen
‘Pekka fried the fish.’

28. wait odottaa

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka odott-aa Matti-a
pn . nom wait- prs .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka is waiting for Matti’

29. forget unohtaa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka unoht-i toisen tie-n
pn . nom forget- pst .3 sg second. gen road- gen
‘Pekka forgot about the other road.’

30. depend riippua

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
muisti riippu-u iä-stä
memory. nom depend- prs .3 sg age- ela
‘Memory depends on age.’

31. call kutsua

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka kutsu-i Matti-a
pn . nom call- pst .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka called Matti.’
Note: It is not clear whether M. came or didn’t come after all.

32. get to know tutustua

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
Pekka tutustu-i Matti-in vuosi sitten
pn . nom get.to.know- pst .3 sg pn - ill year. nom ago
‘Pekka got to know Matti a year ago.’

33. know tuntea

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka tunt-ee Mati-n
pn . nom know- prs .3 sg pn - gen
‘Pekka knows Matti.’

34. play (instrument) soittaa

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka soitt-aa kitara-a
pn . nom play- prs .3 sg guitar- part
‘Pekka is playing the guitar.’

35. avoid vältellä

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka vältt-el-ee Matti-a
pn . nom avoid- freq - prs .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka avoids Matti.’

36. make tehdä

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka tek-i hiirenlouku-n
pn . nom make- pst .3 sg mousetrap- gen
‘Pekka made a mousetrap.’

37. make fun pilkata

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka pilkka-a Matti-a
pn . nom make.fun- prs .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka is making fun of Matti.’

38. have olla

Valency pattern: ADE_NOM
X: ADE
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Peka-lla on auto
pn - ade be. prs .3 sg car. nom
‘Pekka has a car.’

39. look for etsiä

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka etsi-i avaim-ia-an
pn . nom look.for- prs .3 sg key- part . pl - poss .3 sg
‘Pekka is looking for his keys.’

40. paint maalata

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka maala-si aida-n
pn . nom paint- pst .3 sg fence- gen
‘Pekka painted the fence.’

41. bite purra

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
koira pur-i Pekka-a
dog. nom bite- pst .3 sg pn - part
‘A dog bit Pekka.’

42. forfeit menettää

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka menett-i talo-nsa
pn . nom lose- pst .3 sg house- gen . poss .3 sg
‘Pekka lost his house.’

43. try to catch yrittää saada … kiinni

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka yritt-ää saa-da kissa-n kiinni
pn . nom try- prs .3 sg get- inf cat- gen shut
‘Pekka is trying to catch the cat.’

44. break katkoa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka katko-i oksa-n
pn . nom break- pst .3 sg branch- gen
‘Pekka broke a branch.’

45. flatter imarella

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka imartel-ee Lotta-a
pn . nom flatter- prs .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka is flattering Lotta.’

46. love (person) rakastaa

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka rakast-aa Matti-a
pn . nom love- prs .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka loves Matti’

47. wave huiskuttaa

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka huiskutt-aa nenäliina-a
pn . nom wave- prs .3 sg handkerchief- part
‘Pekka is waving a handkerchief.’

48. dream haaveilla

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Pekka haaveil-ee uude-sta auto-sta
pn . nom dream- prs .3 sg new- ela car- ela
‘Pekka is dreaming of a new car.’

49. wash pestä

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka pes-i kupi-n
pn . nom wash- pst .3 sg cup- gen
‘Pekka washed the cup.’

50. put on pukea ylleen

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka puk-i paida-n ylle-en
pn . nom put.on- pst .3 sg shirt- gen on. all - poss .3 sg
‘Pekka put on the shirt.’

51. be called kutsua (PASS.IMPERS)

Valency pattern: PART_TRANS
X: PART
Y: TRANS
Locus: XY
tä-tä työkalu-a kutsu-taan kompassi-ksi
this- part tool- part call- pass . impers compass- trans
‘This tool is called a compass.’

52. punish rangaista

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka rankais-i poika-a-nsa
pn . nom punish- pst .3 sg son- part - poss .3 sg
‘Pekka punished his son.’

53. attack hyökätä

Valency pattern: NOM_GENkimppuun
X: NOM
Y: GENkimppuun
Locus: Y
karhu hyökkä-si kalastaja-n kimppu-un
bear. nom attack- pst .3 sg fisherman- gen bundle- ill
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

54. fill (intr) täyttyä

Valency pattern: NOM_ADE
X: NOM
Y: ADE
Locus: Y
ämpäri täytty-i vede-llä
bucket. nom fill- pst .3 sg water- ade
‘The bucket filled with water.’

55. find löytää

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka löy-si avaim-en
pn . nom find- pst .3 sg key- gen
‘Pekka found the key.’

56. be short puuttua

Valency pattern: ABL_NOM
X: ABL
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Peka-lta puuttu-u yksi euro
pn - abl lack- prs .3 sg one. nom euro. nom
‘Pekka is short one euro.’

57. hate vihata

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka viha-a Matti-a
pn . nom hate- prs .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka hates Matti’

58. like pitää

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Pekka pit-ää tä-stä paida-sta
pn . nom like- prs .3 sg this- ela shirt- ela
‘Pekka likes this shirt.’

59. need tarvita

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka tarvits-ee raha-a
pn . nom need- prs .3 sg money- part
‘Pekka needs money.’

60. surround ympäröidä

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
muuri-t ympäröi-vät kaupunki-a
wall- nom . pl surround-3 pl city- part
‘Walls surround the city.’

61. remain jäädä

Valency pattern: ALL_NOM
X: ALL
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Peka-lle jä-i yksi euro
pn - all remain- pst .3 sg one. nom euro. nom
‘Pekka has 1 euro left.’

62. answer vastata

Valency pattern: NOM_ALL
X: NOM
Y: ALL
Locus: Y
Pekka vasta-si opettaja-lle
pn . nom answer- pst .3 sg teacher- all
‘Pekka answered the teacher.’

63. open avata

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka ava-si tölki-n
pn . nom open- pst .3 sg can- gen
‘Pekka opened a can.’

64. be different erota

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
minun paita-ni ero-aa sinun paida-sta-si
1 sg . gen shirt. nom - poss .1 sg be.different- prs .3 sg 2 sg . gen shirt- ela - poss .2 sg
‘My shirt is different from your shirt.’

65. fall behind jäädä jälkeen

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Pekka jä-i jälkeen Mati-sta
pn . nom stay- pst .3 sg behind pn - ela
‘Pekka fell behind Matti.’

66. plough kyntää

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka kynt-ää pelto-a
pn . nom plough- prs .3 sg field- part
‘Pekka is ploughing the field.’

67. smell haista

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
käte-ni hais-e-vat bensiini-ltä
hand. nom . pl - poss .1 sg smell- prs -3 pl gasoline- abl
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

68. cross ylittää

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka ylitt-i tie-n
pn . nom cross- pst .3 sg road- gen
‘Pekka crossed the road.’

69. sing laulaa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka laul-oi kaunii-n laulu-n
pn . nom sing- pst .3 sg beautiful- gen song- gen
‘Pekka sang a beautiful song.’

70. write kirjoittaa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka kirjoitt-i kirje-en
pn . nom write- pst .3 sg letter- gen
‘Pekka wrote a letter.’

71. drink juoda

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka joi maido-n
pn . nom drink. pst .3 sg milk- gen
‘Pekka drank the milk.’

72. melt sulattaa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka sulatt-i metallipala-n
pn . nom melt- pst .3 sg piece.of.metal- gen
‘Pekka melted a piece of metal.’

73. match sopia

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
tämä vyö sopi-i mekko-o-ni
this. nom belt. nom match- prs .3 sg dress- ill - poss .1 sg
‘This belt matches my dress.’

74. leave lähteä

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Pekka läht-i koti-kaupungi-sta-an
pn . nom leave- pst .3 sg home-city- ela - poss .3 sg
‘Pekka left his native city.’

75. cover peittää

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
matto peitt-ää koko lattia-n
carpet. nom cover- prs .3 sg whole floor- gen
‘The carpet covers the whole floor.’

76. remember muistaa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka muist-aa talo-n hyv-in
pn . nom remember- prs .3 sg house- gen good- adv
‘Pekka remembers the house well.’

77. help auttaa

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka autt-oi Matti-a
pn . nom help- pst .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka helped Matti.’

78. understand (language) ymmärtää

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka ymmärt-ää ranska-a
pn . nom understand- prs .3 sg f rench- part
‘Pekka understands French.’

79. hit (target) osua

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
salama osu-i talo-on
l ightning. nom strike- pst .3 sg house- ill
‘Lightning hit the house.’

80. cut oneself tehdä itselleen haavan

Valency pattern: NOM_ADE
X: NOM
Y: ADE
Locus: Y
Pekka tek-i itse-lle-en haava-n partaterä-llä
pn . nom do- pst .3 sg self- all - poss .3 sg cut- gen razor- ade
‘Pekka cut himself with a razor.’

81. get stuck juuttua

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
lasi juuttu-i pöytä-än
glass. nom get.stuck- pst .3 sg table- ill
‘The glass got stuck to the table.’

82. lose (game) hävitä

Valency pattern: NOM_ALL
X: NOM
Y: ALL
Locus: Y
Pekka hävi-si Mati-lle
pn . nom lose- pst .3 sg pn - all
‘Pekka lost to Matti.’

83. be glad iloinen + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Pekka oli iloinen kirjee-stä
pn . nom be. pst .3 sg glad. nom letter- ela
‘Pekka was glad about the letter.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

84. speak puhua

Valency pattern: NOM_GENkanssa
X: NOM
Y: GENkanssa
Locus: Y
Pekka puhu-u Mati-n kanssa
pn . nom speak- prs .3 sg pn - gen with
‘Pekka is speaking with Matti.’

85. give birth synnyttää

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Lotta synnytt-i poja-n
pn . nom give.birth- pst .3 sg son- gen
‘Lotta gave birth to a son.’

86. drop pudottaa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka pudott-i lasi-n
pn . nom drop- pst .3 sg glass- gen
‘Pekka dropped the glass.’

87. govern johtaa

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka joht-aa kaupunki-a-mme
pn . nom govern- prs .3 sg town- part - poss .1 pl
‘Pekka runs our town.’

88. miss ikävä + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peka-lla on ikävä Matti-a
pn - ade be. prs .3 sg sad. nom pn - part
‘Pekka misses Matti’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

89. follow seurata

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka seura-a Matti-a
pn . nom follow- prs .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka follows Matti’

90. dismount laskeutua

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Pekka laskeutu-i hevose-n selä-stä
pn . nom dismount- pst .3 sg horse- gen back- ela
‘Pekka got down from the horse.’

91. listen kuunnella

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka kuuntel-ee radio-ta
pn . nom listen- prs .3 sg radio- part
‘Pekka is listening to radio.’

92. obey totella

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka tottel-ee äiti-ä-än aina
pn . nom obey- prs .3 sg mother- part - poss .3 sg always
‘Pekka always obeys his mother.’

93. hear kuulla

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka kuul-ee musiiki-n
pn . nom hear- prs .3 sg music- gen
‘Pekka hears the music.’

94. mix sekoittua

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
hunaja sekoittu-i maito-on
honey. nom mix- pst .3 sg milk- ill
‘The honey got mixed with the milk.’

95. look katsoa

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka katso-o pilv-i-ä
pn . nom look- prs .3 sg cloud- pl - part
‘Pekka is looking at the clouds.’

96. take off riisua

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka riisu-i paida-n
pn . nom take.off- pst .3 sg shirt- gen
‘Pekka took off the shirt.’

97. dream (sleeping) nähdä unta

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Pekka näk-ee un-ta Mati-sta
pn . nom see- prs .3 sg dream- part pn - ela
‘Pekka dreams about Matti.’

98. agree samaa mieltä + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_GENkanssa
X: NOM
Y: GENkanssa
Locus: Y
Pekka oli sama-a miel-tä Mati-n kanssa
pn . nom be. pst .3 sg same- part mind- part pn - gen with
‘Pekka agreed with Matti.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

99. have a quarrel riidellä

Valency pattern: NOM_GENkanssa
X: NOM
Y: GENkanssa
Locus: Y
Pekka riitel-i Mati-n kanssa
pn . nom have.a.quarrel- pst .3 sg pn - gen with
‘Pekka had a quarrel with Matti.’

100. cost maksaa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
tämä kuppi maks-aa yhden euro-n
this. nom cup. nom cost- prs .3 sg one. gen euro- gen
‘This cup costs 1 euro.’

101. shoot at ampua

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka ampu-i lintu-a
pn . nom shoot- pst .3 sg bird- part
‘Pekka shot at the bird.’

102. pour kaataa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka kaat-oi sokeri-n kuppi-in
pn . nom pour- pst .3 sg sugar- gen cup- ill
‘Pekka poured the sugar into the cup.’

103. lose hukata

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka hukka-si avaim-en
pn . nom lose- pst .3 sg key- gen
‘Pekka lost the key.’

104. sink upota

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
tukki uppo-si vete-en
log. nom sink- pst .3 sg water- ill
‘The log sank in the water.’

105. kill tappaa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka tapp-oi Mati-n
pn . nom kill- pst .3 sg pn - gen
‘Pekka killed Matti.’

106. hit lyödä

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka löi Matti-a
pn . nom hit. pst .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka hit Matti.’

107. kiss suudella

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka suutel-i Matti-a
pn . nom kiss- pst .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka kissed Matti.’

108. read lukea

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka luk-i mielenkiintoisen kirja-n
pn . nom read- pst .3 sg interesting. gen book- gen
‘Pekka read an interesting book.’

109. move (bodypart) liikuttaa

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka liikutt-i sorme-a-an
pn . nom move- pst .3 sg finger- part - poss .3 sg
‘Pekka moved his finger.’

110. respect kunnioittaa

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka kunnioitt-aa Matti-a
pn . nom respect- prs .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka respects Matti’

111. be squeamish karsastaa

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka karsast-aa likais-i-a asti-oi-ta
pn . nom be.squeamish- prs .3 sg dirty- pl - part dish- pl - part
‘Pekka is squeamish about dirty dishes.’

112. be content tyytyväinen + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
Pekka on tyytyväinen poika-ansa
pn . nom be. prs .3 sg content. nom son- ill . poss .3 sg
‘Pekka is content with his son.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

113. fall in love rakastua

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
Pekka rakastu-i Matti-in
pn . nom fall.in.love- pst .3 sg pn - ill
‘Pekka fell in love with Matti.’

114. trust luottaa

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
Pekka luott-aa Matti-in
pn . nom trust- prs .3 sg pn - ill
‘Pekka trusts Matti.’

115. sympathise sääliä

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka sääli-i äiti-ä-än
pn . nom feel.pity- prs .3 sg mother- part - poss .3 sg
‘Pekka feels pity for his mother.’

116. envy kadehtia

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka kadehti-i Matti-a
pn . nom envy- prs .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka envies Matti.’

117. be angry vihainen + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_ALL
X: NOM
Y: ALL
Locus: Y
Pekka on vihainen Mati-lle
pn . nom be. prs .3 sg angry. nom pn - all
‘Pekka is angry with Matti.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

118. be surprised yllättyä

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Pekka yllätty-i tä-stä lahja-sta
pn . nom be.surprised- pst .3 sg this- ela gift- ela
‘Pekka was surprised at this gift.’

119. love (tea) pitää

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Pekka pit-ää tee-stä
pn . nom like- prs .3 sg tee- ela
‘Pekka loves tea.’

120. enjoy nauttia

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka nautti-i tee-tä
pn . nom enjoy- prs .3 sg tea- part
‘Pekka enjoys hot tea.’
Note: Only possible if P. is actually drinking the tea.

121. want haluta

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka halu-aa uuden kännykä-n
pn . nom want- prs .3 sg new. gen mobile.phone- gen
‘Pekka wants a new mobile phone.’

122. have a grudge kantaa kaulaa

Valency pattern: NOM_ALL
X: NOM
Y: ALL
Locus: Y
Pekka kant-aa kaula-a Mati-lle
pn . nom bear- prs .3 sg grudge- part pn - all
‘Pekka has a grudge against Matti.’

123. take offence loukkaantua

Valency pattern: NOM_ALL
X: NOM
Y: ALL
Locus: Y
Pekka loukkaantu-i Mati-lle
pn . nom take.offence- pst .3 sg pn - all
‘P got cross with Matti.’

124. upset suututtaa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka suututt-i Mati-n pahanpäiväisesti
pn . nom upset- pst .3 sg pn - gen badly
‘Pekka greatly upset Matti.’

125. marvel hämmästyä

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Pekka hämmästy-i tä-stä kaupungi-sta
pn . nom marvel- pst .3 sg this- ela town- ela
‘Pekka marvelled at this town.’

126. despise halveksia

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka halveksi-i Matti-a
pn . nom despise- prs .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka despises Matti.’

127. get upset suuttua

Valency pattern: NOM_ALL
X: NOM
Y: ALL
Locus: Y
Pekka suuttu-i poja-lle-en
pn . nom get.upset- pst .3 sg son- all - poss .3 sg
‘Pekka got upset with his son.’

128. get irritated ärsyyntyä

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Pekka ärsyynty-y tytö-stä-än
pn . nom be.irritated- prs .3 sg daughter- ela - poss .3 sg
‘Pekka is getting irritated with his daughter.’

129. be fond tykätä

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Pekka tykkä-ä Mati-sta
pn . nom like- prs .3 sg pn - ela
‘Pekka is fond of Matti.’

130. be shy ujostella

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka ujostel-ee pituu-tta-an
pn . nom be.shy- prs .3 sg height- part - poss .3 sg
‘Pekka is shy about his height.’