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Forest Enets

Contributed by Maria Ovsjannikova (Academia.edu profile)

M.O.'s photo

The data were gathered in 2015-2016 in Potapovo, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. The Russian version of the questionnaire was used for elicitation.

How to cite

Ovsjannikova, Maria. . Bivalent patterns in Forest Enets. In: Say, Sergey (ed.). BivalTyp: Typological database of bivalent verbs and their encoding frames. St. Petersburg: Institute for Linguistic Studies, RAS. (Data first published on November 3, 2020; last revised on November 3, 2020.) (Available online at https://www.bivaltyp.info, Accessed on .)

Basic info

Forest Enets is a highly endangered language spoken on the Yenisei river in the Far North of Siberia. Nowadays, there are no more than 20 speakers of Forest Enets, mostly residing in the village of Potapovo and in the town of Dudinka in the Taymyrsky Dolgano-Nenetsky District of the Krasnoyarsk Krai. Forest Enets is sometimes regarded as one of the two dialects of the Enets language, along with Tundra Enets.

Grammar notes

Basic clause structure and the transitive construction

Subjects and direct objects are formally distinguished by dependent marking only under certain conditions. For the nouns of the default inflectional class without possessive markers, the bare unmarked stem is used both in the subject and in the direct object position. For the singular nouns of non-default inflectional classes without possessive markers, the oblique stem is optionally used when the noun is in the direct object position (1).

(1) kasa-jʔ         tetʃi-za                biz        ixura
    man-NOM.SG.1SG  be_cold(IPFV)-PTCP.SIM  water.OBL  drink(PFV).3SG.S
    ‘My friend drank cold water.’

For the nouns marked with the possessive markers, the formal distinguishability of subject and direct object depends on the person and number of the possessor and the number of the possessee. Table 1 gives the Forest Enets possessive markers for the singular possessor used for the nouns in the positions of subject, adnominal/postpositional dependent and direct object.

Table 1. Case and possessive marking of nouns (singular possessors)

Person Singular possessee Non-singular possessee
Subject Adnominal/postpositional dependent Direct object Subject Adnominal/postpositional dependent Direct object
1 -jʔ, -b -nʲiʔ -jʔ, -b -nʲiʔ -nʲiʔ -nʲiʔ
2 -r -d -d -z -t -z
3 -za -da -da -za -ta -za

Where there is a distinction between the markers used for the subject and for the adnominal/postpositional dependent, the former is glossed as nominative and the latter, as oblique. The direct object is thus marked either with the nominative (2) or with the oblique marker (3). Where the oblique marker is used, as in (3), the subject and the direct object are formally distinct.

(2) modʲi  kasa-jʔ         nɛ-jʔ             tɛnee-za
    I      man-NOM.SG.1SG  woman-NOM.SG.1SG  know(IPFV)-3SG.SOsg
    ‘My friend knows my wife.’ 

(3) modʲi  kasa-jʔ         nɛ-da             ɔtee
    I      man-NOM.SG.1SG  woman-OBL.SG.3SG  wait(IPFV).3SG.S
    ‘My friend is waiting for his wife.’

Personal pronouns have distinct forms of the nominative, the genitive and the accusative cases. The nominative and the accusative forms are used, respectively, in the positions of the subject and the direct object. The genitive form is used with some postpositions.

The subject (always) and the 3rd person direct object (under certain conditions) are indexed on the verb. There are three series of agreement markers, the subject, the subject-object and the middle series. The middle agreement markers are used for subject indexing with some intransitive verbs. The subject agreement markers can be used for subject indexing in both intransitive and transitive clauses (3). The subject-object agreement markers are cumulative suffixes used for indexing the subject and the direct object (2). The choice between the subject and subject-object agreement markers in transitive clauses is primarily determined by the topicality of the direct object (Differential Object Indexing).

Non-core arguments are marked either by locative cases or by postpositions and are never indexed on the verb. Some non-core arguments have the status represented as “TOP”: they are clause-initial (clause-internal) nominative noun phrases that are not indexed on the verb, see (Ovsjannikova 2018; in press).

Ovsjannikova, Maria. 2018. Kodirovanie učastnikov pri dvuxmestnyx predikatax v lesnom eneckom jazyke. Uralo-altayskie issledovanija, 1 (28). P. 50–69.

Ovsjannikova, Maria. In press. Encoding of nominal possessors in Forest Enets. Eesti ja soome-ugri keeleteaduse ajakiri. Journal of Estonian and Finno-Ugric Linguistics.

Case system

The core case system includes two formally distinct cases for nouns, viz. nominative and oblique, as outlined above, and three cases for pronouns. The locational cases include the dative, the locative, the ablative and the (marginal) prolative cases. Postpositions combine with the nouns in the oblique case.

Verb lemmas

The verbs are shown in the form of a bare stem.

Glossing abbreviations

1, 2, 3 – 1st, 2nd, 3rd person; ABL – ablative case; ADJ – adjectivizer; ANT – anterior; CAR – caritive; CONN – connegative; CVB – converb; DAT – dative case; DISC – discontinuative; DU – dual; FUT – future; HAB – habitual; INC – inchoative; IPFV – imperfective; LOC – locative case; M – middle agreement markers; NEG – negative verb; NOM – nominative case; OBL – oblique; PFV – perfective; PL – plural; PN – proper name; PRF – perfect; PROL – prolative case; PST – past; PTCP – participle; RESTR – suffix meaning ‘only’; S – subject agreement markers; SBJV – subjunctive; SG – singular; SIM – simultaneous; SOsg – subject-object agreement markers for singular object.

Data

Subset examples by valency pattern
Subset examples by locus

1. feel pain ( dʲe ):

Valency pattern: TOP_NOM
X: TOP
Y: NOM
Locus: X
modʲi kasa-jʔ ɛba-za dʲee
i man- nom . sg .1 sg head- nom . sg .3 sg ache( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend has a headache’.

2. have (illness) ( kader ):

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
kasa-jʔ gripo-xon kadeŋa
man- nom . sg .1 sg flu- loc . sg be_ill( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend has the flu’.

3. be afraid ( piis ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ buniki-jʔ piiʔɛ
i man- nom . sg .1 sg dog- nom . sg .1 sg be_afraid( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is afraid of my dog’.

4. throw ( bɛɛ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ pu-da bɛɛ-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg stone- obl . sg .3 sg throw( pfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend threw his stone’.

5. have enough ( tɔɔri ):

Valency pattern: TOP_NOM
X: TOP
Y: NOM
Locus: X
modʲi kasa-jʔ bɛʃi-za tɔɔri-ʔ
i man- nom . sg .1 sg iron- nom . pl .3 sg be_enough( ipfv )-3 pl . s
‘My friend has enough money’.

6. resemble ( ŋa ):

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLdez
X: NOM
Y: OBLdez
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ ɛse-da dʲez ŋa
i man- nom . sg .1 sg father- obl . sg .3 sg in_the_direction be( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend resembles his father’.

7. believe ( pudiri ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ nɛ-xo-da pudiri
i man- nom . sg .1 sg woman- dat . sg - obl . sg .3 sg trust( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend believes his wife’.

8. take ( mu ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ kirba mu ɔ stɔl nʲi-z
i man- nom . sg .1 sg bread take( pfv ).3 sg . s table surface- abl
‘My friend took bread from the table’.

9. see ( mɔdee ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
kasa-jʔ kamozo-da mɔdee-za
man- nom . sg .1 sg house- obl . sg .3 sg see( ipfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend sees his house’.

10. influence ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

11. encounter ( dʲazuta ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ vasʲa-da dʲazuta
i man- nom . sg .1 sg pn - obl . sg .3 sg come_across( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend met Vasja’.

12. enter ( tʃu ):

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLmi
X: NOM
Y: OBLmi
Locus: Y
kasa-jʔ mɛ-ta mi-ʔ tʃuɔ
man- nom . sg .1 sg chum- obl . sg .3 sg inside- dat enter( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend entered his house’.

13. win ( mɔtes ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ karti-xin sanku-ʃ genka-xaz kɔrtuz mɔteʔɛ
i man- nom . sg .1 sg cards- loc . pl play( ipfv )- cvb pn - abl harness. obl win( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘Playing cards my friend won harness from Genka’.

14. go out ( ɔziu ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ mɛ-kozo-da ɔzima
i man- nom . sg .1 sg chum- abl . sg - obl . sg .3 sg be_visible( ipfv ). inc .3 sg . s
‘My friend went out of his house’.

15. drive ( tanir ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ ti-za taniŋa nɛbe kɔzuj-d
i man- nom . sg .1 sg reindeer- nom . pl .3 sg drive( ipfv ).3 sg . s new pasture- dat
‘My friend is driving his reindeer to the new pasture’.

16. bend ( bujurta ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ niga bujurta
i man- nom . sg .1 sg bushes bend( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend bent the branch’.

17. tell ( man ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ mana-ʃ genka-xo-da: mɛ-ko-nʲiʔ to-nʲi-d mɛziza-ʃ
i man- nom . sg .1 sg say( pfv )-3 sg . s . pst pn - dat . sg - obl . sg .3 sg chum- dat - obl . sg .1 sg come( pfv )- sbjv -2 sg . s be_on_visit( ipfv )- cvb
‘My friend told to Genka: “Come to my place to stay as a guest”’.

18. hold ( nɔɔbera ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ tʃezi-da nɔɔbera
i man- nom . sg .1 sg lasso- obl . sg .3 sg hold( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is holding his lasso’.

19. catch up ( dʲɔbu ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ nɛ-da dʲɔbuɔ-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg woman- obl . sg .3 sg catch_up( pfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend caught up with his wife’.

20. milk ( dɔir ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi nɛ-jʔ dʲɔxazi-da dɔi-bi
i woman- nom . sg .1 sg female_reindeer- obl . sg .3 sg milk( pfv )- prf .3 sg . s
‘My wife has milked the female reindeer’.

21. reach ( tɔɔ ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ teni biz baru-d tɔɔ-j-zʔ
i man- nom . sg .1 sg to_opposite_bank water. obl border- dat . sg reach( pfv )- m -3 sg . m
‘My friend reached the bank at the opposite side’.

22. touch ( tʃurxur ):

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLdez
X: NOM
Y: OBLdez
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ uza-da pɛtʃeu dʲez tʃurxuŋa
i man- nom . sg .1 sg hand- obl . sg .3 sg stove. obl in_the_direction touch( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend touched the stove with his hand’.

23. fight ( tarur ):

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
kasa-jʔ vasʲa-xane-da taruŋa
man- nom . sg .1 sg pn - loc . sg - obl . sg .3 sg fight( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is fighting with Vasja’.

24. be friends ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
modʲi kasa-jʔ vasʲa-da nɔʔ pɔj-ziʔ sɔjza ɛ-ubi-ʔ
i man- nom . sg .1 sg pn - obl . sg .3 sg with relationship- nom . pl .3 du good be( ipfv )- hab -3 pl . s
‘My friend usually has good relations with Vasja’.
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP.

25. think ( biis ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ kasa nʲe-da biiʔɛ
i man- nom . sg .1 sg man child- obl . sg .3 sg remember( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is thinking about his son’.

26. eat ( ɔ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ ŋaʔu ɔma
i man- nom . sg .1 sg duck eat( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend ate a duck’.

27. fry ( dʲasi ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ kare dʲasie
i man- nom . sg .1 sg fish fry_on_stick( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend fried fish’.

28. wait ( ɔte ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ nɛ-da ɔtee
i man- nom . sg .1 sg woman- obl . sg .3 sg wait( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is waiting for his wife’.

29. forget ( dʲurota ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ nɛko nɔi-ta sɛxɛri-da dʲurota-bi-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg other be_straight( ipfv )- ptcp . sim road- obl . sg .3 sg forget( pfv )- prf -3 sg . so sg
‘My friend forgot about another, straight road’.

30. depend ( pɛri ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
mɛsi-za ŋa-xaz pɛri
wind- nom . sg .3 sg sky- abl hold( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘The wind depends on the sky’.

31. call ( kaata ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ kasa nʲe-da kaata
i man- nom . sg .1 sg man child- obl . sg .3 sg call( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend called his son’.

32. get to know ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
modʲi kasa-jʔ nɛ-da ejbuj pɔ-xan dʲazee-zaʃ
i man- nom . sg .1 sg woman- obl . sg .3 sg last_year year- loc . sg встретить-3 sg . so sg. pst
‘My friend met his wife last year’.
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

33. know ( tɛne ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ nɛ-jʔ tɛnee-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg woman- nom . sg .1 sg know( ipfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend knows my wife’.

34. play (instrument) ( sɛnoko ):

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ garmoʃka-xan sɛnokoɔ
i man- nom . sg .1 sg squeezebox- loc . sg play( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is playing the squeezebox’.

35. avoid ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
vasʲa tɔju entʃe-goz kudʲiku-on kanʲe-ga
pn that person. obl - abl . sg far- prol . sg leave( pfv )- disc .3 sg . s
‘Vasja keeps leaving farther from that person’.
Note: Not included in the dataset because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

36. make ( ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ tʃeziu mɛ-bi
i man- nom . sg .1 sg lasso. obl make( pfv )- prf .3 sg . s
‘My friend made a lasso’.

37. make fun ( piʃizi ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ vasʲa-da piʃiza
i man- nom . sg .1 sg pn - obl . sg .3 sg ridicule( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is making fun of Vasja’.

38. have ( tɔne ):

Valency pattern: TOP_NOM
X: TOP
Y: NOM
Locus: X
modʲi kasa-jʔ ɔdu-za tɔnee
i man- nom . sg .1 sg boat- nom . sg .3 sg there_is( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend has a boat’.

39. look for ( per ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ poga-da peŋa
i man- nom . sg .1 sg fishing_net- obl . sg .3 sg look_for( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is looking for his fishing net’.

40. paint ( krasijr ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
kasa-jʔ pe ne kexon kamozo-da krasij-bi-za
man- nom . sg .1 sg outdoors side side- loc . sg house- obl . sg .3 sg paint( ipfv )- prf -3 sg . so sg
‘My friend painted his house on the side of the street’.
Note: This is probably a spontaneous borrowing from Russian.

41. bite ( sɛkuru ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
buniki kasa-jʔ sɛkura
dog man- nom . sg .1 sg bite( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘A dog bit my friend’.

42. forfeit ( kaja ):

Valency pattern: NOM_CAR
X: NOM
Y: CAR
Locus: Y
kasa-jʔ mɛ-tʃuz kaja
man- nom . sg .1 sg chum- car stay_behind( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend remained homeless’.

43. try to catch ( nɔɔjru ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
kasa-jʔ buzuj te-da nɔɔjra
man- nom . sg .1 sg agile reindeer- obl . sg .3 sg catch( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is trying to catch an agile reindeer’.

44. break ( mɔree ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ mɔj mɔree
i man- nom . sg .1 sg wood branch break( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend broke a wooden stick’.

45. flatter ( naldur ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ nɛ-xo-da nalduŋa
i man- nom . sg .1 sg woman- dat . sg - obl . sg .3 sg fawn( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is fawning to his wife’.

46. love (person) ( kɔmita ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ nɛ-da kɔmita-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg woman- obl . sg .3 sg like( ipfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend loves his wife’.

47. wave ( lɛbitur ):

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ ɔbi-xone-da lɛbituŋa
i man- nom . sg .1 sg mitten- loc . sg - obl . sg .3 sg wave( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is waving his mitten’.

48. dream ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

49. wash ( kɔlta ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi nɛ-jʔ dʲizi-da kɔlta-bi-za
i woman- nom . sg .1 sg cauldron- obl . sg .3 sg wash( pfv )- prf -3 sg . so sg
‘My wife washed the bucket’.

50. put on ( sɛru ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ piʔi-za sɛra
i man- nom . sg .1 sg trousers- nom . pl .3 sg put_on( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend put on his trousers’.

51. be called ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

52. punish ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

53. attack ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

54. fill (intr) ( padi ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
pexee dʲizi sare bi-t padi-e-zʔ
outdoors. adj cauldron rain water- dat . sg fill( pfv )- m -3 sg . m
‘The outdoor bucket filled with rain water’.

55. find ( ko ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ nɛɛ-da sɔjeeʔ koɔ-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg needle- obl . sg .3 sg just_now find( pfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend has just found his needle’.

56. be short ( tɔɔri + NEG ):

Valency pattern: TOP_NOM
X: TOP
Y: NOM
Locus: X
modʲi kasa-jʔ ŋo-lʲu bɛse-za nʲi tɔɔri-ʔ
i man- nom . sg .1 sg one- restr iron- nom . sg .3 sg neg .3 sg . s be_enough( ipfv )- conn
‘My friend lacks one rouble’.

57. hate ( nɛseza ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
vasʲa kasa-jʔ nɛseza
pn man- nom . sg .1 sg hate( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘Vasja hates my friend’.

58. like ( kɔmita ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ tʃike lubaxa kɔmita-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg this cloth like( ipfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend likes this shirt’.

59. need ( magu ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ bɛse maguɔ
i man- nom . sg .1 sg iron be_in_need( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend needs money’.

60. surround ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

61. remain ( kaji ):

Valency pattern: TOP_NOM
X: TOP
Y: NOM
Locus: X
modʲi kasa-jʔ dʲuʔ bɛse-za kaja
i man- nom . sg .1 sg hundred iron- nom . sg .3 sg stay_behind( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend has one hundred roubles left’.

62. answer ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

63. open ( nɛte ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ banka nɛti-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg jar open( pfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend opened the jar’.

64. be different ( dʲɔgode ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
modʲi lubaxa-jʔ uuʔ lubaxa-xazo-d dʲɔgode
i cloth- nom . sg .1 sg you cloth- abl . sg - obl . sg .2 sg another
‘My shirt is different from your shirt’.
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

65. fall behind ( kaji ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
vasʲa kasa-xazo-da kaji-bi
pn man- abl . sg - obl . sg .3 sg stay_behind( pfv )- prf .3 sg . s
‘Vasja fell behind his friend’.

66. plough ( kɔbuda ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
rosa-ʔ dʲa kɔbuda-ʔ
r ussian- pl place skin( ipfv )-3 pl . s
‘The Russians scrape the ground’.

67. smell ( ɔtis ):

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
modʲi uzi-nʲiʔ kare-xon ɔtiʔɛ-ʔ
i hand- pl .1 sg fish- loc . sg smell( ipfv )-3 pl . s
‘My hands smell of fish’.

68. cross ( kanʲe ):

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLnoru
X: NOM
Y: OBLnoru
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ sɛxɛri nɔruʔ kanʲi
i man- nom . sg .1 sg road across leave( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend crossed the road’.

69. sing ( kinus ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ sɔjza bare kinuʔɔ
i man- nom . sg .1 sg good song sing( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend sang a beautiful song’.

70. write ( pazu ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ pazur paza
i man- nom . sg .1 sg paper write( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend wrote a letter’.

71. drink ( ixuru ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
kasa-jʔ tetʃi-za biz ixura
man- nom . sg .1 sg be_cold( ipfv )- ptcp . sim water. obl drink( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend drank cold water’.

72. melt ( dʲuta ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ salba-da dʲuta
i man- nom . sg .1 sg ice- obl . sg .3 sg heat( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend melted the ice’.

73. match ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

74. leave ( kaji ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ sɔja-j-da dʲa-da kaji-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg be_born( pfv )- ptcp . ant - obl . sg .3 sg place- obl . sg .3 sg leave_behind( pfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend left his native land’.

75. cover ( sɛja ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
koba lata tʃuktʃi sɛja-za
skin board all close( pfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘The skin covers the whole floor’.

76. remember ( biis ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ sɔja-j-da kamozo-da sɔjza-an biiʔɛ-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg be_born( pfv )- ptcp . ant - obl . sg .3 sg house- obl . sg .3 sg good- prol . sg remember( ipfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend remembers well the house where he was born’.

77. help ( pɛrezi ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ vasʲa-da pɛrezie-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg pn - obl . sg .3 sg help( pfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend helped Vasja’.

78. understand (language) ( kameku ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ dʲurak baza kamekuɔ-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg n enets language understand( ipfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend understands the Nenets language’.

79. hit (target) ( tɛbu ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
kiu tu tɛxɛ pɛ-d tɛba
thunder fire there(loc) wood- dat . sg hit( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘Lightning hit that tree’.

80. cut oneself ( mɔta ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ uzi-da mɔta kɔru-d
i man- nom . sg .1 sg hand- obl . pl .3 sg cut( pfv ).3 sg . s knife- dat . sg
‘My friend cut his hand with the knife’.

81. get stuck ( tɔzu ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
kizi stɔlu-d tɔzu-bi
vessel table- dat . sg stick( pfv )- prf .3 sg . s
‘The cup got stuck to the table’.

82. lose (game) ( mɔtelta ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
modʲi genka-xa-nʲiʔ tʃasi-jʔ mɔtelta-u
i pn - dat . sg - obl . sg .1 sg watch- nom . sg .1 sg lose( pfv )-1 sg . so sg
‘I lost my watch to Genka’.

83. be glad ( ɛdiu ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ pazu-go-da ɛdema
i man- nom . sg .1 sg paper- dat . sg - obl . sg .3 sg become_glad( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend was glad about the letter’.

84. speak ( dʲɔrir ):

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
kasa-jʔ vasʲa-xane-da dʲɔriŋa
man- nom . sg .1 sg pn - loc . sg - obl . sg .3 sg talk( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is speaking with Vasja’.

85. give birth ( sɔja ):

Valency pattern: TOP_NOM
X: TOP
Y: NOM
Locus: X
modʲi nʲe-jʔ kasa nʲe-za sɔja-ʃ
i woman child- nom . sg .1 sg man child- nom . sg .3 sg be_born( pfv )-3 sg . s . pst
‘My daughter gave birth to a son’.

86. drop ( sumuɔjta ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ tʃaʃka-da sumuɔjta-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg cup- obl . sg .3 sg drop( pfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend dropped his cup’.

87. govern ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

88. miss ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

89. follow ( dʲazu ):

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLpoon
X: NOM
Y: OBLpon
Locus: Y
vasʲa kasa-da pɔɔn dʲaza
pn man- obl . sg .3 sg behind go( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘Vasja is following his friend’.

90. dismount ( kaʔa ):

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLniz
X: NOM
Y: OBLniz
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ buranu-da nʲi-z dʲa nʲi-ʔ kaʔ-e-zʔ
i man- nom . sg .1 sg snowmobile- obl . sg .3 sg surface- abl place surface- dat come_down( pfv )- m -3 sg . m
‘My friend got down from the snowmobile to the ground’.

91. listen ( dʲuzire ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ spidola-da dʲuzire
i man- nom . sg .1 sg portable_radioset- obl . sg .3 sg listen( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is listening to radio’.

92. obey ( dʲuzire ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ ɛɛ-xo-da dʲuzire-ubi
i man- nom . sg .1 sg mother- dat . sg - obl . sg .3 sg listen( ipfv )- hab .3 sg . s
‘My friend obeys his mother’.

93. hear ( nɔdos ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ entʃeu soo-ʔ nɔdoʔɔ
i man- nom . sg .1 sg person. obl throat- pl hear( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend hears human voices’.

94. mix ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

95. look ( seŋir ):

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLdez
X: NOM
Y: OBLdez
Locus: Y
kasa-jʔ ŋa dʲez seŋiŋa
man- nom . sg .1 sg sky in_the_direction look( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is looking at the sky’.

96. take off ( dʲika ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ lubaxa-da dʲika
i man- nom . sg .1 sg cloth- obl . sg .3 sg take_off( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend took off his shirt’.

97. dream (sleeping) ( dʲukoneda mɔdee ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ dʲu-kone-da ese-da mɔdee-ubi
i man- nom . sg .1 sg dream- loc . sg - obl . sg .3 sg father- obl . sg .3 sg see( ipfv )- hab .3 sg . s
‘My friend dreams about his father’.

98. agree ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

99. have a quarrel ( kauzur ):

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ nɛ-xone-da kauzu-bi
i man- nom . sg .1 sg woman- loc . sg - obl . sg .3 sg abuse( ipfv )- prf .3 sg . s
‘My friend had a quarrel with his wife’.

100. cost ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ɛke tʃaʃka mirzo-za dʲuʔ bɛse
this cup price- nom . sg .3 sg hundred iron
‘The price of this cup is one hundred roubles’.
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as a non-verbal predicate.

101. shoot at ( dʲɔza ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ ŋaʔu dʲɔza-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg duck shoot( pfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend shot at the duck’.

102. pour ( bata ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ dʲaasa-da dʲizi mi-ʔ bata-bi-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg flour- obl . sg .3 sg cauldron inside- dat pour_out( pfv )- prf -3 sg . so sg
‘My friend poured the flour into the bucket’.

103. lose ( dʲɔs ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ bɛʃi-za dʲɔʔɔ
i man- nom . sg .1 sg iron- nom . pl .3 sg loose( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend lost his money’.

104. sink ( sija ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ɔdu dʲɔxa bi-t sija
boat river water- dat . sg sink( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘The boat sank in the river’.

105. kill ( kaza ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ saame kaza
i man- nom . sg .1 sg wolf obtain( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend killed a wolf’.

106. hit ( dʲɔzi ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
vasʲa modʲi kasa-jʔ dʲɔzie
pn i man- nom . sg .1 sg hit( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘Vasja hit my friend’.

107. kiss ( nʲujza ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ nɛ-da nʲujza
i man- nom . sg .1 sg woman- obl . sg .3 sg kiss( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend kissed his wife’.

108. read ( tota ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ pazu-da tota-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg paper- obl . sg .3 sg count( pfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend read the letter’.

109. move (bodypart) ( buzida ):

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ ŋo-lʲu tʃubaj-xone-da buzida-da
i man- nom . sg .1 sg one- restr finger- loc . sg - obl . sg .3 sg move( pfv )- fut .3 sg . s
‘My friend will move one finger’.

110. respect ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

111. be squeamish ( nɔsoza ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
ɛke modʲinaʔ kizi-naʔ nɔsoza
this woman we vessel- pl .1 pl be_squeamish( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘This woman is squeamish about our dishes’.

112. be content ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

113. fall in love ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

114. trust ( dʲeɔdur ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
kasa-jʔ nɛ-xo-da dʲeɔduŋa
man- nom . sg .1 sg woman- dat . sg - obl . sg .3 sg trust( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend trusts his wife’.

115. sympathise ( sɛr ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
kasa-jʔ ɛɛ-da aga-an sɛŋa-za
man- nom . sg .1 sg mother- obl . sg .3 sg big- prol . sg feel_sorry_for( ipfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend sympathizes with his mother a lot’.

116. envy ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

117. be angry ( barzir ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ vasʲa-xa-da barziŋa
i man- nom . sg .1 sg pn - dat . sg - obl . sg .3 sg be_angry( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is angry with Vasja’.

118. be surprised ( dʲɔke ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ mɛzesi-xozo-da dʲɔkee
i man- nom . sg .1 sg gift- abl . sg - obl . sg .3 sg be_surprised( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend was surprised at the gift’.

119. love (tea) ( kɔmita ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ kare kɔmita
i man- nom . sg .1 sg fish like( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend likes fish’.

120. enjoy ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

121. want ( kɔma ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ meju ɔdu-d kɔma
i man- nom . sg .1 sg new boat- dat . sg want( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend wants a new boat’.

122. have a grudge ( barzir ):

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ vasʲa-xa-da barziŋa
i man- nom . sg .1 sg pn - dat . sg - obl . sg .3 sg be_angry( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is angry with Vasja’.

123. take offence ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

124. upset ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

125. marvel ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

126. despise ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

127. get upset ( baruu ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ kasa nʲe-xozo-da baruma
i man- nom . sg .1 sg man child- abl . sg - obl . sg .3 sg get_angry( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend got upset with his son’.

128. get irritated ( bɔbur ):

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLdez
X: NOM
Y: OBLdez
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ nʲe-da dʲez bɔbuŋa
i man- nom . sg .1 sg woman child- obl . sg .3 sg in_the_direction grumble( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend grumbles at his daughter’.

129. be fond ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

130. be shy ( pajartur ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ page-xito-ta pajartuŋa
i man- nom . sg .1 sg outerwear- abl . pl - obl . sg .3 sg be_shy( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is shy about his clothes’.