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Tsugni Dargwa

Contributed by Gasangusen Sulaibanov (Academia.edu profile)

G.S.'s photo

The data were gathered in 2023 from R. Sulaibanov and K. Sulaibanova. The Russian version of the questionnaire was used for elicitation, but Gasangusen Sulaibanov took advantage of his own capacity of a native speaker as well.

How to cite

Sulaibanov, Gasangusen. 2023. Bivalent patterns in Tsugni Dargwa. In: Say, Sergey (ed.). BivalTyp: Typological database of bivalent verbs and their encoding frames. (Data first published on November 2, 2023; last revised on January 29, 2024.) (Available online at https://www.bivaltyp.info, Accessed on .)

Basic info

Grammar notes

Basic clause structure and the transitive construction

Tsugni Dargwa exhibits ergative-absolutive alignment, feature agreement based on nominal class (gender/number) and as well as person agreement, and a free word order. Tsugni Dargwa is a highly agglutinative language language both in its nominal and verbal domain, with an extensive inventory of cases, particularly in locative cases, totaling over 170 casel-like forms.

Case system

The grammatical cases include the nominative (NOM), which is formally unmarked and corresponds to the bare form of the word, as well the ergative (ERG), dative (DAT), comitative (COM), consecutive (CONS), and genitive (GEN) cases. The basic markers of grammatical cases is shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Grammatical cases

case marker
Nominative -∅
Ergative -li
Genitive -la
Dative -j
Comitative -cːala
Сonsecutive -gitːe

The system of spatial cases is a complex system with three spatial dimensions: location, orientation, and direction, which combine. There are seven locative morphemes in Tsugni, indicating locations in relation to the marked noun, see Table 2. Table 2. Localisation markers

localisation marker
APUD -šːu
ANTE -sa
POST -gira
INTER -cːе
SUB -gu
SUPER -gе
LOC -lе

When unaccompanied by orientation or direction morphemes, locative markers denote the meaning of motion towards a location, that is, a lative meaning. The combination of a locative morpheme with an agreement marker that indexes the gender and number of the argument in the nominative case (intransitive subject or transitive object) results in the essive orientation, which is used to denote a stative position is space (without movement). Two futher orientation strategies involve the -r marker, which denotes motion from (ablative), and finally an orientation called ‘directive’, which is marked by the combination of gender/number agreement marker and the vowel ‘a’. Both ablative and directive markers are combined with one of four direction markers. Thus, the meaning of motion from is signalled by one of four complex morphemes: -rka, -rha, -rca or -rde. All in all, there are 70 (7 localisations x (2 orientations + 2x4 orientation/direction combinations)) distinct localisation + orientation + direction combinations. Together with grammatical cases, this yields 76 case forms.

Verb lemmas

Verbs are cited in the infinitive form, and roots that have aspectual pairs are given in the order PFV/IPFV. Verbs that include a gender and number agreement marker are presented with the singular neuter class marker b-. In the case of complex verbal predicates, the non-verbal part is separated from the auxiliary verb and is given only before the first (PFV) verbal root. Additionally, if the verb contains a locative prefix or prefixes, it is/they are indicated by a hyphen.

Glossing abbreviations

ABL — ablative; ADD — additive; ANTE — localisation ‘in front of’; APUD — localization ‘near, to, at’; ATR — attributive; CAUS — causative; CNTRS — contrastive; CNV — converb; COM — comitative; COMP — comparative; COP — copula; DAT — dative; DOWN — direction ‘down’; ERG — ergative; ESS — essive; EXST — existential; F — feminine; GEN — genitive; HAB — habitual; HPL — human plural; ID — ideophone; INF — infinitive; INTER — localization ‘between, in’; IPFV — imperfective; LAT — lative; LOC — locative (common localization); M — masculine; MSD — masdar; N — neutral; NEG — negation; NMLZ — nominalization; NPL — neutral plural; OBL — oblique; ON — localization ‘on’; PFV — perfective; PL — plural; POST — localization ‘behind, after’; PRET — preterite; PROG — progressive (continuous); PRS — present; PST — past; SUB — localization ‘under’; SUPER — localization ‘on, above’; TR — transitive; UP — direction ‘up’.

Data

Subset examples by valency pattern
Subset examples by locus

1. feel pain icː-i

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-la hanna bek' icː-ule=cabi
boy- gen now head hurt. ipfv - cnv . prog = cop : n (3)
‘The boy now has a headache.’
Note: NP in the genitive is arguably a clause-level dependent.

2. have (illness) b-iχʷ-i / b-irχʷ-i

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
durħaˤ šatːiq'a-la w-iχ-uble=caj
boy cold. pl . obl - gen m -be. pfv - cnv . pret = cop : m (3)
‘The boy has the flu.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. NP in the genitive is arguably a clause-level dependent.

3. be afraid uruχ b-ik'ʷ-i

Valency pattern: NOM_ANTE.ABL.DOWN
X: NOM
Y: ANTE.ABL.DOWN
Locus: Y
durħaˤ χːʷe-sa-rka uruχ w-ik'-ule=caj
boy dog- ante - abl . down fear m -say- cnv . prog = cop : m (3)
‘The boy is afraid of the dog.’

4. throw ix-i / irxʷ-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li qːarqːa ix-ub
boy- erg stone throw. ipfv - pret (3)
‘The boy threw a stone.’

5. have enough b-eʁ-i / b-irʁ-i

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-j arc d-irʁ-ule=cadi
boy- dat money npl -be.enough. ipfv - cnv . prog = cop : npl (3)
‘The boy has enough money.’

6. resemble miši-le + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
durħaˤ tːati-ge miši-le=caj
boy father- super ( lat ) similar- adv = cop : m (3)
‘The boy resembles his father.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

7. believe b-iχ ag-i / arg-i

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
tːatːi rurs:i-ge w-iχ ag-ur
father girl- super ( lat ) m -trust go. ipfv - pret (3)
‘The father believes his daughter.’

8. take k-asː-i / ka-jsː-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li žuz ka-sː-ib
boy- erg book down -take. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy took a book.’

9. see b-ag-i / b-ig-i

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-j qali če-b-ag-ib
boy- dat home on - n -see. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy sees a house.’

10. influence *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

11. encounter qːaršːi b-ič-i / b-irč-i

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-j zumra qːarši r-ič-ib
boy- dat neighbor opposite f -get. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy encountered his neighbor.’

12. enter b-urkːe ha-b-uq-i / ha-b-ulq-i

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: LOC(LAT)
Locus: Y
durħaˤ uškul-le urkːe ha-wq-un
boy school- loc ( lat ) ( m )inside( lat ) up-( m )move. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy entered the school.’

13. win če-b-b-iχʷ-i / če-b-b-irχʷ-i

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.ESS
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.ESS
Locus: Y
durħaˤ zumra-ge-w če-w-w-iχ-ub
boy neighbor- super - m . ess on - m - m -be. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy beat his neighbor.’

14. go out tːura b-uq-i / ha-b-ulq-i

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC.ABL.DOWN
X: NOM
Y: LOC.ABL.DOWN
Locus: Y
durħaˤ uškul-le-rka tːura uqun
boy school- loc - abl . down outside( lat ) ( m )move. pfv - pret (3)
‘The went out of the school.’

15. drive b-uč-i / b-ič-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li ħaˤjwan-te duče k-ule=caj
boy- erg domestic_animal- pl pasture. loc ( lat ) drive. ipfv - cnv . prog = cop : m (3)
‘The boy is driving the cattle to the pasture.’

16. bend b-aˤž-i / b-aˤlž-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li k'aˤli b-aˤž-un
boy- erg branch n -bend. pfv ( caus )- pret (3)
‘The boy bent the branch.’

17. tell ag-i / ig-i

Valency pattern: ERG_INTER(LAT)
X: ERG
Y: INTER(LAT)
Locus: Y
durħaˤ-li zumra-cːe ag-ib
boy- erg neighbor- inter ( lat ) say. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy told his neighbor.’

18. hold b-uc-i / b-urc-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li žuz nuqba-cːe-b b-uc-ible=caj
boy- erg book hand. pl . obl - inter - n ( ess ) n -keep. pfv - cnv . pret = cop : m (3)
‘The boy is holding a book in his hands.’

19. catch up hitːe ha-b-eʁ-i / ha-b-irʁ-i

Valency pattern: NOM_POST
X: NOM
Y: POST
Locus: Y
durħaˤ zumra-gitːe hitːe h-eʁ-ib
boy neighbor- post post (after) up -( m )reach. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy caught up with his neighbor.’

20. milk b-irc-i / icː-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rursːi-li q'ʷaˤl b-ircː-ib
girl- erg cow n -milk. pfv - pret (3)
‘The girl milked the cow.’

21. reach ka-b-eʁ-i / ka-b-irʁ-i

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: LOC(LAT)
Locus: Y
rursːi dum-le ke-r-eʁ-ib
girl edge- loc ( lat ) down- f -reach. pfv - pret (3)
‘The girl reached the bank.’

22. touch ha-k-ačː-i / ha-ka-ičː-i

Valency pattern: ERG_INTER(LAT)
X: ERG
Y: INTER(LAT)
Locus: Y
rursːi-li lac-li-cːe ha-ka-ačː-ib
girl- erg wall- obl - inter ( lat ) up - down -hit. pfv - pret (3)
‘The girl touched the wall.’

23. fight b-iħ-i / b-irħ-i

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
durħaˤ rursːi-cːala w-irħ-ule=caj
boy girl- com m -fight. pfv - cnv . prog = cop : m (3)
‘The boy is fighting with a girl.’

24. be friends juldaš b-iχʷ-i / b-irχʷ-i

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
durħaˤ rursːi-cːala juldaš w-iχ-ub
boy girl- com friend m -be. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy is friends with the girl.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

25. think pikri b-ik'ʷ-i

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.ABL.DOWN
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.ABL.DOWN
Locus: Y
durħaˤ rursːi-ge-rka pikri w-ik'-ule=caj
boy girl- super - abl . down thought m -say- cnv . prog = cop : m (3)
‘The boy is thinking about the girl.’

26. eat b-erkʷ-i / b-ukʷ-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li hinci b-erk-un
boy- erg apple n -eat. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy ate an apple.’
Note: Co-exists with an antipassive (NOM_INST) pattern.

27. fry b-erc'-i / b-uc'-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rursːi-li dig b-erc'-ib
girl- erg meat n -roast. pfv - pret (3)
‘The girl roasted the meat.’

28. wait er-le + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
rursːi durħaˤ-ge er-le=cari
girl boy- super ( lat ) look- adv = cop : f (3)
‘The girl is waiting for the boy.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

29. forget qum k-art-i

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rursːi-j ca=ra x:uni leb-ni qum k-art-ur
girl- dat one- add road cop . exst . n - msd mind down -put- pret (3)
‘The girl forgot about the other road.’
Note: The argument in the nominative is a nominalization (masdar).

30. depend *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

31. call weh ag-i / ig-i

Valency pattern: ERG_INTER(LAT)
X: ERG
Y: INTER(LAT)
Locus: Y
durħaˤ-li zumra-cːe weh ag-ib
boy- erg neighbor- inter ( lat ) call say. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy called his neighbor.’

32. get to know taˤniš b-iχʷ-i / b-irχʷ-i

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
durħaˤ zumra-cːala taˤniš w-iχ-ub
boy neighbor- com familiar m -be. ipfv - pret
‘The boy got to know his neighbor a year ago.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

33. know b-aχ-i / b-alχ-i

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-j zumra r-alχ-a
boy- dat neighbor f -know. ipfv -3 hab . prs
‘The boy knows his (female) neighbor.’

34. play (instrument) b-aˤq-i / b-uˤrq-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li tːam b-urq-ule=caj
boy- erg drum n -hit. ipfv - cnv . prog = cop : m (3)
‘The boy is playing the drum.’

35. avoid gu-rka-b-isː-i / gu-rka-b-ilsː-i

Valency pattern: NOM_ANTE.ABL.DOWN
X: NOM
Y: ANTE.ABL.DOWN
Locus: Y
durħaˤ zumra-sa-rka gu-rka-ls-unne=caj
boy neighbor- ante - abl . down sub - abl . down -( m )lie. ipfv - cnv . prog = cop : m (3)
‘The boy avoids his neighbor.’

36. make b-arq'-i / b-irq'-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li guta b-arq'-ib
boy- erg chair n -do. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy made a chair.’

37. make fun *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

38. have le-b; b-iχʷ-i / b-irχʷ-i

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-la hanna qali le-b
boy- gen now home cop . exst - n
‘The boy now has a house.’
Note: NP in the genitive is arguably a clause-level dependent. Existential predicate.

39. look for hitːe b-aš-i

Valency pattern: NOM_POST
X: NOM
Y: POST
Locus: Y
durħaˤ umxːu-gitːe hitːe w-ax-ule=caj
boy key- post post (after) m -walk- cnv . prog = cop : m (3)
‘The boy is looking for his key.’

40. paint b-ač-i / b-ič-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li uncːa šir-li d-ač-ib
boy- erg door color- erg npl -paint. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy painted the door.’

41. bite q'ac' b-ikː-i / b-ilkː-i

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
χːʷe durħaˤ-ge q'ac' b-ikː-un
dog boy- super ( lat ) id .bite n -bite. pfv . pret (3)
‘A dog bit the boy.’

42. forfeit b-uq-i / b-ulq-i

Valency pattern: NOM_INTER.ABL.DOWN
X: NOM
Y: INTER.ABL.DOWN
Locus: Y
zumra qali-cːe-rka uq-un
neighbor home- inter - abl . down ( m )move. pfv - pret (3)
‘The neighbor lost his house.’

43. try to catch b-uc-i / b-urc-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
kːata-li waca b-urc-ule=cabi
cat- erg mouse n -catch. ipfv - cnv . prog = cop : n (3)
‘The cat is trying to catch the mouse.’

44. break b-aˤč-i / b-aˤlč-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li dirxːa b-aˤč-un
boy- erg stick n -break. pfv ( caus )- pret (3)
‘The boy broke a stick.’

45. flatter *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

46. love (person) b-ičː-i

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-j baba r-ikː-u
boy- dat mother f -love-3 hab . prs
‘The boy loves his mother.’

47. wave hak' b-arq'-i / b-irq'-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li naˤq hak' b-arq'-ib
boy- erg hand id .swing n -do. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy is waving his hand.’

48. dream xul b-ik'ʷ-i

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
durħaˤ mašin-ni-ge xul ik'-ule caj
boy car- obl - super ( lat ) hope ( m )say- cnv . prog = cop : m (3)
‘The boy is dreaming of a new car.’

49. wash b-irc-i / ic-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rursːi-li k'uču b-irc-ib
girl- erg cup n -wash. pfv - pret (3)
‘The girl washed the cup.’

50. put on aχ-i / alχ-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rursːi-li awa aχ-ur
girl- erg dress wear. pfv - pret (3)
‘The girl put on her dress.’

51. be called b-ik'ʷ-i

Valency pattern: SUPER(LAT)_NOM(NO.AGR)
X: SUPER(LAT)
Y: NOM(NO.AGR)
Locus: XY
ħaˤjgi-ge kalpatan b-ik'ʷ-ar
this. obl - super ( lat ) pliers hpl -say-3 hab . prs
‘This is called pliers.’
Note: Transimpersonal construction, the verb indexed the (unnamed) human ‘sayers’.

52. punish b-ebg-i / b-ubg-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
zumra-li durħaˤ w-ebg-ub
neighbor- erg boy m -beat. pfv - pret (3)
‘The neighbor punished his son.’

53. attack če-b-ič-i / če-b-irč-i

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
χʷe durħaˤ-ge če-b-ič-ib
dog boy- super ( lat ) on - n -fall. pfv - pret
‘A dog attacked the boy.’

54. fill (intr) b-ic'-i / b-irc'-i

Valency pattern: NOM_ERG
X: NOM
Y: ERG
Locus: Y
badra hin-ni b-ic'-ib
bucket water- erg n -fill. pfv - pret (3)
‘The bucket filled with water.’

55. find b-arčː-i / b-určː-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li umxːu b-arčː-ib
boy- erg key n -find. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy found his key.’

56. be short b-eʁ-i / b-irʁ-I + NEG

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-j wec'al qːuruš ʡaˤ-b-eʁ-a-j
boy- dat ten ruble neg - n -be_enough. pfv - pret . neg -3
‘The boy is ten roubles short.’

57. hate če-b-ag-i ʡaˤ-b-ičː-i

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-j zumra če-r-ag-i=ra ʡaˤ-r-ikː-u
boy- dat neighbor on - f -see. pfv - inf = add neg - f -like- hab . prs 3
‘The boy hates his neighbor.’

58. like b-ičː-i

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-j mašin b-ikː-u
boy- dat car n -like- hab . prs 3
‘The boy likes the car.’

59. need ʡaˤni-le ca-b-i; ʡaˤni-le b-iχʷ-i / b-irχʷ-i

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-j mašin ʡaˤni-le=cabi
boy- dat car need- adv = cop : n (3)
‘The boy needs a car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

60. surround alaw b-uc-i / b-urc-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
qali lucra-li alaw b-uc-ib
home wall. pl . obl - erg around n -catch. pfv - pret (3)
‘Walls surround the house.’

61. remain k-alg-i / k-alug-i

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-la hanna wec'al qːuruš k-alg-un
boy- gen now ten money down-stay. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy has now ten roubles left.’
Note: NP in the genitive is arguably a clause-level dependent.

62. answer žabaw b-ičː-i / b-ulučː-i (to 3 pers.); žabaw čː-i / lučː-i (to 1 and 2 pers.)

Valency pattern: ERG_INTER(LAT)
X: ERG
Y: INTER(LAT)
Locus: Y
durħaˤ-li tatːi-cːe žabaw b-ičː-ib
boy- erg father- inter ( lat ) answer n -give. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy answered his father.’

63. open abšː-i / ibšː-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li taq'a abšː-ib
boy- erg pot open. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy opened a can.’

64. be different b-ik'ar-le + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_COMP
X: NOM
Y: COMP
Locus: Y
dila mašin ela=lerka b-ik'ar-le=cabi
1. gen car 2. gen = comp n -different- adv = cop : n
‘My car is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

65. fall behind hela ka-b-ič-i / ka-b-irč-i

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
durħaˤ rus:i-la hela ka-jč-ib
boy girl- gen behind down-fall. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy fell behind the girl.’
Note: NP in the genitive is arguably a clause-level dependent.

66. plough b-ac-i / b-alc-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
zumra-li qu b-ac-un
neighbor- erg field n -plough. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy ploughed the field.’

67. smell kːʷaˤʡ + COP

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
nuqba-cːe-rka nabt-la kːʷaˤʡ leb
hand. pl . obl - inter - abl : down oil- gen smell cop . exst : n (3)
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

68. cross četːe ka-b-uq-i / ka-ulq-i

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC.ABL.DOWN
X: NOM
Y: LOC.ABL.DOWN
Locus: Y
durħaˤ xːun-ne-rka četːe ka-uq-un
boy road- loc - abl . down across down -( m )move. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy crossed the road.’

69. sing dalaj b-elč'-i / b-uč'-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li dalaj b-elč'-un
boy- erg song n -read. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy sang a song.’

70. write b-elk'-i / luk'-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li kaʁar b-elk'-un
boy- erg letter n -write. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy wrote a letter.’

71. drink b-erčː-i / b-učː-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li nig d-erčːib
boy- erg milk npl -drink. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy drank the milk.’
Note: Co-exists with an antipassive (NOM_INST) pattern.

72. melt b-ac'-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li ʁurʁašin b-ac'-ib
boy- erg lead n -melt. pfv ( caus )- pret (3)
‘The boy melted a piece of lead.’

73. match b-al b-ič-i / b-irč-i

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-j šːi b-al b-irk-ule=cabi
boy- dat village n -suitable n -get. pfv - cnv . prog = cop : n (3)
‘The village suits the boy well.’

74. leave b-arx b-at-i / b-alt-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li šːi b-arx b-at-ur
boy- erg village n -straight n -leave. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy left his native village.’

75. cover b-uc-i / b-urc-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
t'amsa-li libil musːa b-uc-ible=cabi
carpet- erg all: n place n -take. pfv - cnv . pret = cop : n (3)
‘The carpet covers the whole floor.’

76. remember han + COP

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-j šːi han=leb-ala
boy- dat village mind= cop . exst : n -3
‘The boy remembers the village well.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

77. help kumek b-arq'-i / b-irq'-i

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
durħaˤ-li šːi-j kumek b-arq'-ib
boy- erg village- dat help n -do. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy helped the village.’

78. understand (language) arʁ-i / irʁ-i

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-j ʡurus mec irʁ-u
boy- dat r ussian language understand. ipfv -3 hab . prs
‘The boy understands Russian.’

79. hit (target) ačː-i / ičː-i

Valency pattern: NOM_INTER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: INTER(LAT)
Locus: Y
q'arqːa naˤq-li-cːe ačː-ib
stone hand- obl - inter ( lat ) get/hit. pfv - pret (3)
‘The stone hit the hand.’

80. cut oneself b-alʁ-i / luʁ-i

Valency pattern: ERG_ERG
X: ERG
Y: ERG
Locus: Y
durħaˤ-li dis-li t'ul b-alʁ-un
boy- erg knife- erg finger n -cut. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy cut his finger with the knife.’

81. get stuck hitːe b-asː-i / b-alsː-i

Valency pattern: NOM_INTER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: INTER(LAT)
Locus: Y
cancːi waˤšaˤw-li-cːe hitːe b-asː-un
thorn trousers- obl - inter ( lat ) post (after) n -cling. pfv - pret (3)
‘A thorn stuck to the trousers.’

82. lose (game) gu-b-b-iχ-i / gu-b-b-irχ-i

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB.ESS
X: NOM
Y: SUB.ESS
Locus: Y
durħaˤ tatːi-gu-w gu-w-w-iχ-ub
boy father- sub - m . ess sub - m . ess - m -be. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy lost to his father.’

83. be glad raˤzi b-iχ-i / b-irχ-i

Valency pattern: NOM_ERG
X: NOM
Y: ERG
Locus: Y
χabar-li durħaˤ raˤzi w-iχ-ub
news- erg boy happy m -be. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy was glad about the news.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

84. speak ʁaj b-ik'-i

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
durħaˤ zumra-сːala ʁaj w-ik'-ule=caj
boy neighbor- com speech m -say- cnv . prog = cop : m (3)
‘The boy is speaking with his neighbor.’

85. give birth h-ak'-i / h-alk'-i

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
zumra-la durħaˤ h-ak'-ub
neighbor- gen boy up -be_born. pfv - pret (3)
‘The neighbor gave birth to a son.’
Note: NP in the genitive is arguably a clause-level dependent.

86. drop kʷer-k-aq'-i / kʷer-k-alq'-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li k'uč'u kʷer-k-aq'-ur
boy- erg cup from.hand- down -pour. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy dropped the glass.’

87. govern χʷal-il + COP

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
zumra šːi-la χʷal-il=(caj)
neighbor village- gen big- atr . cntrs =( cop . m )
‘The neighbor runs the village.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

88. miss *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

89. follow *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

90. dismount če-rka-b-uq-i / če-rka-b-ulq-i

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.ABL.DOWN
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.ABL.DOWN
Locus: Y
durħaˤ urči-ge-rka če-rka-uq-un
boy horse- super - abl . down on - abl . down -( m )move. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy got down from the horse.’

91. listen legu k-aq-i / ka-iq-i

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
durħaˤ teliwizur-li-ge legu ka-q-ible=caj
boy tv- obl - super ( lat ) ear down -hang. pfv - cnv . pret = cop : m .3
‘The boy is listening to the tv.’

92. obey legu aq-i / iq-i

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
gule tatːi-ge legu iq-ar
child. pl father- super ( lat ) ear down -hang. ipfv -3 hab . prs
‘The children obey their father.’

93. hear b-aq'-i / b-iq'-i

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-j t'ama b-aq'-ib
boy- dat sound n -hear. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy hears the noise.’

94. mix b-arχa b-iχʷ-i / b-irχʷ-i

Valency pattern: NOM_INTER.ESS
X: NOM
Y: INTER.ESS
Locus: Y
waza nig-li-cːe-b b-arχa b-iχ-ub
honey milk- obl - inter - n ( ess ) n -mix n -be. pfv - pret (3)
‘The honey got mixed with milk.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

95. look er b-urč'-i

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER(LAT)
X: ERG
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
durħaˤ qːir-ma-ge er-urk'-ule=caj
boy- erg cloud- pl . obl - super ( lat ) look-( m )leave. pfv - cnv . prog = cop : m (3)
‘The boy is looking at the clouds.’

96. take off če-rka-b-at-i / če-rka-b-alt-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li awa če-rka-b-at-ur
boy- erg shirt on . abl - down - n -leave. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy took off his shirt.’

97. dream (sleeping) muger b-ic:-i / b-ilc:-i

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-j tatːi muger w-ic:-ur
boy- dat father dream m -appear. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy has dreamed about his father.’

98. agree q'abul b-ič-i / b-irč-i

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
zumra durħaˤ-cːala q'abul w-ič-ib
neighbor boy- com agreement m -fall. pfv - pret (3)
‘The neighbor agreed with the boy.’

99. have a quarrel č'aˤp' b-uq-i / b-ulq-i

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
durħaˤ zumra-cːala č'aˤp' uq-un
boy neighbor- com dispute ( m )move. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy had a quarrel with his neighbor.’

100. cost COP

Valency pattern: NOM_ERG
X: NOM
Y: ERG
Locus: Y
ʡuba-la killa ʁajal qːuruš-li=cab=de
potato. pl . obl - gen kilo twenty ruble- erg = cop : n (3)= pst
‘One kilo of potatoes costs twenty roubles.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

101. shoot at tupang ix-i / irx-i

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
durħaˤ-li χʷe-j tupang ix-ub
boy- erg dog- dat gun throw. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy shot at the dog.’

102. pour k-aq'-i / k-alq'-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li čaˤj-li-cːe mizi-dix k-aq'-ur
boy- erg tea- obl - inter ( lat ) sweet- nmlz down -pour. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy poured the sugar into the cup.’

103. lose b-it-aq-i / b-it-iq-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li umxne d-it-aq-ib
boy- erg key. pl npl -thither-go_through. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy lost his keys.’

104. sink gu-b-uqː-i / gu-b-iqː-i

Valency pattern: NOM_ERG
X: NOM
Y: ERG
Locus: Y
hin-ni tːalla gu-b-uqː-ib
water- erg plank sub - n -carry. pfv - pret (3)
‘The log sank in the water.’

105. kill k-aq'-i / k-alq'-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li žibin k-aq'-ur
boy- erg mosquito down -kill. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy killed a mosquito.’

106. hit b-aˤq-i / b-uˤrq-i

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
durħaˤ-li q'ʷaˤl-li-j b-aˤq-ib
boy- erg cow- obl - dat n -hit. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy hit the cow.’

107. kiss paj ag-i / ig-i

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
durħaˤ-li baba-j paj ag-ib
boy- erg mother- dat kiss say. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy kissed his mother.’

108. read b-elč'-i / b-uč'-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li žuz b-elč'-un
boy- erg book n -read. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy read the book.’

109. move (bodypart) šiš b-arq'-i / b-irq'-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li kːamuli šiš b-arq'-ib
boy- erg toe id .shift n -do. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy moved his toe.’

110. respect ħurmat b-arq'-i / b-irq'-i

Valency pattern: ERG_GEN
X: ERG
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
durħaˤ-li zumra-la ħurmat b-irq'-u
boy- erg neighbor- gen respect n -do. ipfv -3 hab . prs . tr
‘The boy respects his neighbor.’
Note: NP in the genitive is arguably a clause-level dependent.

111. be squeamish urk'i čːar-d-ik'ʷ-i

Valency pattern: GEN_SUPER(LAT)
X: GEN
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: XY
durħaˤ-la waˤ-ce q'ʷaˤʡ-li-ge urk'i čːar-d-ik'ʷ-ar
boy- gen bad- atr smell- obl - super ( lat ) heart back- npl -say-3 hab . prs
‘The boy is squeamish about the smell.’
Note: NP in the genitive is arguably a clause-level dependent.

112. be content raˤzi-le + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.ESS
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.ESS
Locus: Y
durħaˤ-li-ge-w tatːi raˤzi-le=caj
boy- obl - super - m . ess father happy- adv = cop : m (3)
‘The father is satisfied with his son.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

113. fall in love *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

114. trust če-b-b-iχː-i

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.ESS
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.ESS
Locus: Y
durħaˤ-li-ge-w tatːi če-w-w-iχː-uˤle=caj
boy- obl - super - m . ess father on - m . ess - m -keep. ipfv - cnv . prog = cop : m (3)
‘The father trusts his son.’

115. sympathise jazuq b-icː-i / b-ilcː-i

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-j tatːi jazuq w-ilcː-unne=caj
boy- dat father poor m -appear. pfv - cnv . prog = cop : m (3)
‘The boy sympathises with his father.’

116. envy waˤħaˤl-le + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.ESS
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.ESS
Locus: Y
durħaˤ zumra-ge-w waˤħaˤl-le=caj
boy neighbor- super - m . ess jealous- adv - cop : m (3)
‘The boy envies his neighbor.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

117. be angry q'uc'-le + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
durħaˤ zumra-ge q'uc'-le=caj
boy neighbor- super ( lat ) angry- adv = cop : m (3)
‘The boy is angry with his neighbor.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

118. be surprised tamaša b-iχʷ-i / b-irχʷ-i

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.ESS
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.ESS
Locus: Y
durħaˤ xunnela-ge-w tamaša w-iχ-ub
boy gift- super - m . ess amazing m -be. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy was surprised at this gift.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

119. love (tea) b-ič:-i

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-j čaˤj d-ikː-u
boy- dat tea npl -like- hab . prs 3
‘The boy loves tea.’

120. enjoy *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

121. want b-ič:-i

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-j čaˤj d-ikː-ule=caj
boy- dat tea npl -like- cnv . prog = cop . m
‘The boy wants tea.’

122. have a grudge q'uc'-le + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
durħaˤ zumra-ge q'uc'-le=caj
boy neighbor- super ( lat ) angry- adv - cop : m (3)
‘The boy holds a grudge against his neighbor.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

123. take offence q'uc'-le + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
durħaˤ zumra-ge q'uc' w-iχ-ub
boy neighbor- super ( lat ) angry m -be. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy took offence at his neighbor.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

124. upset pašman b-arq'-i / b-irq'-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li zumra pašman w-arq'-ib
boy- erg neighbor sad m -do. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy greatly upset his neighbor.’

125. marvel tamaša b-iχʷ-i / b-irχʷ-i

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.ESS
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.ESS
Locus: Y
durħaˤ šahar-li-ge-w tamaša w-iχ-ub
boy city- obl - super - m . ess amazing m -be. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy was impressed by this town.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

126. despise *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

127. get upset b-amq'-i / b-umq'-i

Valency pattern: NOM_ERG
X: NOM
Y: ERG
Locus: Y
durħaˤ waˤ-ce χabar-li w-amq'-ur
boy bad- atr news- erg m -get_upset. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy got upset because of bad news.’

128. get irritated *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

129. be fond *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

130. be shy uruc b-ik'ʷ-i

Valency pattern: NOM_ANTE.ABL.DOWN
X: NOM
Y: ANTE.ABL.DOWN
Locus: Y
durħaˤ tatːi-sa-rka uruc w-ik'-ule=caj
boy father- ante - abl . down shame m -be. pfv - cnv . prog = cop . m (3)
‘The boy is embarrased about his father.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.