BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

Czech

Contributed by Anastasia Makarova (ResearchGate profile)

A.M.'s photo

The dataset was put together in 2017 by Anastasia Makarova (native speaker of Russian, knowledge of Czech as a foreign language) in consultation with Lucie Taraldsen Medová (native speaker of Czech). The Russian version of the questionnaire was used for elicitation.

How to cite

Makarova, Anastasia. 2021. Bivalent patterns in Czech. In: Say, Sergey (ed.). BivalTyp: Typological database of bivalent verbs and their encoding frames. St. Petersburg: Institute for Linguistic Studies, RAS. (Data first published on July 24, 2021; last revised on September 24, 2021.) (Available online at https://www.bivaltyp.info, Accessed on .)

Basic info

Grammar notes

Basic clause structure

Case marking displays the nominative-accusative alignment. In the basic transitive construction, the A-argument is in the nominative, and the P-argument in the accusative. In neuter nouns and inanimate masculine nouns the accusative form coincides with the nominative, however, these two forms are consistently interlinearized according to their grammatical feature value. Examples (1) and (2) thereby represent canonical transitive construction, even though the accusative form of dům ‘house’ in (1) is zero-marked and coincides with the nominative form of the same noun.

(1)  Petr           vidí                dům
     PN(M)[NOM.SG]  see(IPFV).PRS.3SG   house(M)[ACC.SG]
     ‘Petr sees the house.’

(2)  Petr           dohna-l                  Michal-a
     PN(M)[NOM.SG]  catch_up(PFV)-PST[M.SG]  PN(M)-ACC.SG
     ‘Petr caught up with Michal.’

The predicate always agrees with the nominative subject in number and person/gender (the choice of agreement features is conditioned by tense). Non-subjects are never indexed on the predicate. Some bivalent predicates expressing physical or emotional states display the Experiencer in the dative (3) or the accusative (4), that, unless expressed by pronominal clitics, takes the thematic position.

(3)  Petr-ovi      se        zdá                  o      Michal-ovi
     PN(M)-DAT.SG  REFL.ACC  dream(IPFV).PRS.3SG  about  PN(M)-LOC.SG
     ‘Petr dreams about Michal’

(4)  Petr-a        bolí                hlav-a
     PN(M)-ACC.SG  ache(IPFV).PRS.3SG  head(F)-NOM.SG
     ‘Petr has a headache.’

Non-core arguments are flagged by oblique case markers and prepositions. A number of prepositions can combine with several different cases; valency class labels represent prepositions in combination with the specific case, e.g., NOM_naACC (where the preposition na combines with a noun phrase in the accusative case, cf. example 21 below) and NOM_naLOC (where the same preposition combines with a noun phrase in the locative case, cf. example 30 below) are considered two different valency patterns, etc.

Case system

There are 7 full-fledged cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, instrumental, locative, and vocative.

Verb lemmas

Verbs are cited in their infinitive form specified for aspect (perfective or imperfective).

Glossing abbreviations

3 — third person; ACC — accusative; DAT — dative; F — feminine; GEN — genitive; INF — infinitive; INS — instrumental; IPFV — imperfective; LOC — locative; M — masculine; N — neuter; NOM — nominative; PFV — perfective; PL — plural; PN — person name; PRS — present; PST — past; REFL — reflexive; SG — singular.

Data

Subset examples by valency pattern
Subset examples by locus

1. feel pain bolet

Valency pattern: ACC_NOM
X: ACC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-a bolí hlav-a
pn ( m )- acc . sg ache( ipfv ). prs .3 sg head( f )- nom . sg
‘Petr has a headache.’

2. have (illness) mít

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr chřipk-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] have( ipfv ). prs .3 sg flu( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr has the flu.’

3. be afraid bát se

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Petr se bojí ps-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc be_afraid( ipfv ). prs .3 sg dog( m )- gen . sg
‘Petr is afraid of the dog.’

4. throw hodit

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petr hodi-l kamen-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] throw( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] stone( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr threw a stone.’

5. have enough mít dost

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
konečně Petr dost peněz
finally have( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] enough money( m )[ gen . pl ]
‘Finally Petr has enough money.’
Note: Not included in the database because the intended meaning is expressed by a structurally discontinuous combination (predicate + adnominal modifier).

6. resemble podobat se

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petr se podobá dědečk-ovi
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc resemble( ipfv ). prs .3 sg grandfather( m )- dat . sg
‘Petr resembles his grandfather.’

7. believe věřit

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petr věří Michal-ovi
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] believe( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( m )- dat . sg
‘Petr believes Michal.’

8. take vzít

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr vza-l knih-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] take( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] book( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr took a book.’

9. see vidět

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr vidí dům
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] see( ipfv ). prs .3 sg house( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petr sees a house.’

10. influence ovlivňovat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
věk ovlivňuje paměť
age( m )[ nom . sg ] influence( ipfv ). prs .3 sg memory( f )[ acc . sg ]
‘Age influences memory.’

11. encounter potkat se

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Petr se potka-l s Michal-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc meet( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] with pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr encountered Michal.’

12. enter vejít

Valency pattern: NOM_doGEN
X: NOM
Y: doGEN
Locus: Y
Petr veše-l do dom-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] enter( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] in house( m )- gen . sg
‘Petr entered the house.’

13. win vyhrát

Valency pattern: NOM_nadINS
X: NOM
Y: nadINS
Locus: Y
Petr vyhrá-l nad Michal-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] win( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] above pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr beat Michal.’

14. go out vyjít

Valency pattern: NOM_zGEN
X: NOM
Y: zGEN
Locus: Y
Petr vyše-l z dom-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] go_out( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] from house( m )- gen . sg
‘Petr went out of the house.’

15. drive hnát

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr žene kráv-u na pastv-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] drive( ipfv ). prs .3 sg cow( f )- acc . sg on pasture( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr is chasing the cow to the pasture.’

16. bend ohnout

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr ohnu-l větev
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] bend( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] branch( f )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petr bent the branch.’

17. tell říct

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petr řek-l Michal-ovi: "…"
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] tell( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( m )- dat . sg "…"
‘Petr told Michal "…".’

18. hold držet

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr drží knih-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] hold( ipfv ). prs .3 sg book( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr is holding a book.’

19. catch up dohnat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr dohna-l Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] catch_up( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr caught up with Michal.’

20. milk podojit

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr podoji-l kráv-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] milk( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] cow( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr milked the cow.’

21. reach dostat se

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Petr se dosta-l na břeh
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc reach( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] on bank( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petr reached the bank.’

22. touch dotknout se

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Petr se dotk-l stěn-y
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc touch( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] wall( f )- gen . sg
‘Petr touched the wall.’

23. fight prát se

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Petr se pere s Michal-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc fight( ipfv ). prs .3 sg with pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr is fighting with Michal.’

24. be friends kamarádit se

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Petr se kamarádí s Michal-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc be_friends( ipfv ). prs .3 sg with pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr is friends with Michal.’

25. think přemýšlet

Valency pattern: NOM_oLOC
X: NOM
Y: oLOC
Locus: Y
Petr přemýšlí o Michal-ovi
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] think( ipfv ). prs .3 sg about pn ( m )- loc . sg
‘Petr is thinking about Michal.’

26. eat sníst

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr sněd-l jablk-o
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] eat( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] apple( n )- acc . sg
‘Petr ate an apple.’

27. fry osmažit

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr osmaži-l ryb-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] fry( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] fish( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr fried the fish.’

28. wait čekat

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Petr čeká na Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] wait( ipfv ). prs .3 sg on pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr is waiting for Michal.’

29. forget zapomenout

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Petr zapomně-l na tu druh-ou cest-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] forget( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] on that. f . acc . sg other- f . acc . sg road( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr forgot about that other road.’

30. depend závislý + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_naLOC
X: NOM
Y: naLOC
Locus: Y
pamět' je závisl-á na věk-u
memory( f )[ nom . sg ] be( ipfv ). prs .3 sg dependent- f . nom . sg on age( m )- loc . sg
‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

31. call zavolat

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Petr zavola-l na Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] call( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] on pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr called Michal.’

32. get to know seznámit se

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Petr se seznámi-l s Michal-em před rok-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc get_to_know( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] with pn ( m )- ins . sg before year( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr got to know Michal a year ago.’

33. know znát

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr zná Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] know( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr knows Michal.’

34. play (instrument) hrát

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Petr hraje na kytar-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] play( ipfv ). prs .3 sg on guitar( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr is playing the guitar.’

35. avoid vyhýbat se

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petr se vyhýbá Michal-ovi
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc avoid( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( m )- dat . sg
‘Petr avoids Michal.’

36. make vyrobit

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr vyrobi-l bomb-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] make( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] bomb( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr made a bomb.’

37. make fun vysmívat se

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petr se vysmívá Michal-ovi
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc make_fun( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( m )- dat . sg
‘Petr is making fun of Michal.’

38. have mít

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr auto
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] have( ipfv ). prs .3 sg car( n )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petr has a car.’

39. look for hledat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr hledá klíč-e
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] look_for( ipfv ). prs .3 sg key( m )- acc . pl
‘Petr is looking for his keys.’

40. paint natřít

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr natře-l plot
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] paint( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] fence( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petr painted the fence.’

41. bite kousat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr-a kous-l pes
pn ( m )- acc . sg bite( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] dog( m )[ nom . sg ]
‘A dog bit Petr.’

42. forfeit přijít

Valency pattern: NOM_oACC
X: NOM
Y: oACC
Locus: Y
Petr přiše-l o dům
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] come( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] about house( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petr lost his house.’

43. try to catch snažit se ulovit

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr se snaží ulovi-t kočk-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc try( ipfv ). prs .3 sg catch( pfv )- inf cat( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr is trying to catch the cat.’

44. break zlomit

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr zlomi-l tyč
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] break( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] stick( f )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petr broke a stick.’

45. flatter lichotit

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petr Michal-ovi lichotí
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] pn ( m )- dat . sg flatter( ipfv ). prs .3 sg
‘Petr is flattering Michal.’

46. love (person) milovat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr miluje Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] love( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr loves Michal.’

47. wave mávat

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petr mavá šátk-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] wave( ipfv ). prs .3 sg scarf( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr is waving a scarf.’

48. dream snít

Valency pattern: NOM_oLOC
X: NOM
Y: oLOC
Locus: Y
Petr sní o nov-ém aut-ě
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] dream( ipfv ). prs .3 sg about new- n . loc . sg car( n )- loc . sg
‘Petr is dreaming of a new car.’

49. wash umýt

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr umy-l hrnek
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] wash( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] mug( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petr washed the mug.’

50. put on obléknout si

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr si oblék-l kalhot-y
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . dat put_on( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] trousers- acc . pl
‘Petr put on his trousers.’

51. be called jmenovat se

Valency pattern: NOM_NOM
X: NOM
Y: NOM
Locus: Y
tahle věc se jmenuje kompas
this. f . nom . sg thing( f )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc call( ipfv ). prs .3 sg compass( m )[ nom . sg ]
‘This object is called a compass.’

52. punish potrestat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr potresta-l syn-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] punish( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] son( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr punished his son.’

53. attack napadnout

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
medvěd napad-l rybář-e
bear( m )[ nom . sg ] attack( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] fisherman( m )- acc . sg
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

54. fill (intr) naplnit se

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
kbelík se naplni-l vod-ou
bucket( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc fill( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] water( f )- ins . sg
‘The bucket filled with water.’

55. find najít

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr naše-l klíč-e
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] find( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] key( m )- acc . pl
‘Petr found his keys.’

56. be short chybit

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-ovi chybí dolar
pn ( m )- dat . sg lack( ipfv ). prs .3 sg dollar( m )[ nom . sg ]
‘Petr is one dollar short.’

57. hate nenávidět

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr nenávidí Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] hate( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr hates Michal.’

58. like líbit se

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-ovi se líbí ta košil-e
pn ( m )- dat . sg refl . acc like( ipfv ). prs .3 sg this. f . nom . sg shirt( f )- nom . sg
‘Petr likes this shirt.’

59. need potřebovat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr potřebuje peníz-e
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] need( ipfv ). prs .3 sg money( m )- acc . pl
‘Petr needs money.’

60. surround obklopovat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
měst-o obklopují hradb-y
city( n )- acc . sg surround( ipfv ). prs .3 pl wall( f )- nom . pl
‘Walls surround the city.’

61. remain zůstat

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-ovi zůsta-l-o deset dolar-ů
pn ( m )- dat . sg remain( pfv )- pst - n . sg ten[ nom ] dollar( m )- gen . pl
‘Petr has ten dollars left.’

62. answer odpovědět

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petr učitel-i odpovědě-l
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] teacher( m )- dat . sg answer( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]
‘Petr answered the teacher.’

63. open otevřít

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr otevře-l lahvičk-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] open( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] bottle( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr opened a bottle.’

64. be different jiný + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_nezNOM
X: NOM
Y: nezNOM
Locus: Y
moj-e košil-e je jin-á než tvoj-e
my- f . nom . sg shirt( f )- nom . sg be( ipfv ). prs .3 sg other- f . nom . sg than your- f . nom . sg
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

65. fall behind zpozdit se

Valency pattern: NOM_zaINS
X: NOM
Y: zaINS
Locus: Y
Petr se zpozdí-l za Michal-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc fall_behind( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] behind pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr fell behind Michal.’

66. plough orat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr oře pol-e
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] plough( ipfv ). prs .3 sg field( n )- acc . sg
‘Petr is ploughing the field.’

67. smell smrdět

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
ruc-e mi smrdí benzín-em
hand( f )- nom . pl i . dat smell( ipfv ). prs .3 pl gasoline( m )- ins . sg
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

68. cross přejít

Valency pattern: NOM_presACC
X: NOM
Y: presACC
Locus: Y
Petr přeše-l přes ulic-i
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] cross( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] over street( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr crossed the street.’

69. sing zazpívat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr zazpíva-l krásn-ou písničk-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] sing( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] beautiful- f . acc . sg song( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr sang a beautiful song.’

70. write napsat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr napsa-l dopis
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] write( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] letter( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petr wrote a letter.’

71. drink vypít

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr vypi-l mlék-o
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] drink( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] milk( n )- acc . sg
‘Petr drank the milk.’

72. melt roztavit

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr roztavi-l kousek olov-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] melt( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] piece( m )[ acc . sg ] lead( n )- gen . sg
‘Petr melted a piece of lead.’

73. match hodit se

Valency pattern: NOM_kDAT
X: NOM
Y: kDAT
Locus: Y
tenhle pásek se hodí k mým šat-ům
this. m . nom . sg belt( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc fit( ipfv ). prs .3 sg to my. dat . pl dress( m )- dat . pl
‘This belt matches my dress.’

74. leave opustit

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr opusti-l rodn-é měst-o
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] leave( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] native- n . acc . sg city( n )- acc . sg
‘Petr left his home town.’

75. cover pokrývat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
koberec pokrývá cel-ou podlah-u
carpet( m )[ nom . sg ] cover( ipfv ). prs .3 sg whole- f . acc . sg floor( f )- acc . sg
‘The carpet covers the whole floor.’

76. remember pamatovat si

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr si dobře ten dům pamatuje
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . dat well this. m . acc . sg house( m )[ acc . sg ] remember( ipfv ). prs .3 sg
‘Petr remembers this house well.’

77. help pomoci

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petr Michal-ovi pomoh-l
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] pn ( m )- dat . sg help( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]
‘Petr helped Michal.’

78. understand (language) rozumět

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr rozumí francouzsk-y
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] understand( ipfv ). prs .3 sg f rench- m . acc . sg
‘Petr understands French.’

79. hit (target) uhodit

Valency pattern: NOM_doGEN
X: NOM
Y: doGEN
Locus: Y
do dom-u uhodi-l blesk
in house( m )- gen . sg hit( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] lightning( m )[ nom . sg ]
‘Lightning struck the house.’

80. cut oneself pořezat se

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petr se pořeza-l břitv-ou
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc cut( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] razor( f )- ins . sg
‘Petr cut himself with a razor.’

81. get stuck přilepit se

Valency pattern: NOM_kDAT
X: NOM
Y: kDAT
Locus: Y
sklenice se přilepi-l-a ke stol-u
glass( f )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc stick( pfv )- pst - f . sg to table( m )- dat . sg
‘The glass got stuck to the table.’

82. lose (game) prohrát

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Petr prohrá-l s Michal-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] lose( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] with pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr lost to Michal.’

83. be glad zaradovat se

Valency pattern: NOM_nadINS
X: NOM
Y: nadINS
Locus: Y
Petr se nad dopis-em zaradova-l
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc above letter( m )- ins . sg rejoice( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]
‘Petr rejoiced over the letter.’

84. speak mluvit

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Petr mluví s Michal-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] speak( ipfv ). prs .3 sg with pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr is speaking with Michal.’

85. give birth porodit

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Michael-a porodi-l-a syn-a
pn ( f )- nom . sg give_birth( pfv )- pst - f . sg son( m )- acc . sg
‘Michaela gave birth to a son.’

86. drop upustit

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr upusti-l sklenic-i
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] drop( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] glass( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr dropped the glass.’

87. govern řídit

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr řidí naš-i vesnic-i
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] drive( ipfv ). prs .3 sg our- f . acc . sg village( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr runs our village.’

88. miss stýskat se

Valency pattern: NOM_poLOC
X: NOM
Y: poLOC
Locus: Y
Petr se stýská po Michal-ovi
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc miss( ipfv ). prs .3 sg after pn ( m )- loc . sg
‘Petr misses Michal.’

89. follow jít

Valency pattern: NOM_zaINS
X: NOM
Y: zaINS
Locus: Y
Petr jde za Michal-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] go( ipfv ). prs .3 sg behind pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr follows Michal.’

90. dismount seskočit

Valency pattern: NOM_zGEN
X: NOM
Y: zGEN
Locus: Y
Petr seskoči-l z kon-ě
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] jump_off( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] from horse( m )- gen . sg
‘Petr jumped off the horse.’

91. listen poslouchat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr poslouchá rádi-o
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] listen( ipfv ). prs .3 sg radio( n )- acc . sg
‘Petr is listening to radio.’

92. obey poslouchat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr poslouchá mamink-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] listen( ipfv ). prs .3 sg mother( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr listens to his mother.’

93. hear slyšet

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr slyší hudb-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] hear( ipfv ). prs .3 sg music( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr hears the music.’

94. mix rozpustit se

Valency pattern: NOM_vLOC
X: NOM
Y: vLOC
Locus: Y
med se rozpusti-l v mlék-u
honey( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc melt( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] in milk( n )- loc . sg
‘The honey melted in the milk.’

95. look pozorovat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr pozoruje mrak-y
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] look( ipfv ). prs .3 sg cloud( m )- acc . pl
‘Petr is looking at the clouds.’

96. take off sundat si

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr si sunda-l košil-i
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . dat put_off( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] shirt( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr took off his shirt.’

97. dream (sleeping) zdát se

Valency pattern: NOM_oLOC
X: NOM
Y: oLOC
Locus: Y
Petr-ovi se zdá o Michal-ovi
pn ( m )- dat . sg refl . acc dream( ipfv ). prs .3 sg about pn ( m )- loc . sg
‘Petr dreams about Michal.’

98. agree souhlasit

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Petr s souhlasí
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] with she. ins agree( ipfv ). prs .3 sg
‘Petr agrees with her.’

99. have a quarrel pohádat se

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Petr se poháda-l s Michal-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc have_a_quarrel( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] with pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr had a quarrel with Michal.’

100. cost stát

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ta sklenic-e stojí jeden dolar
this. f . nom . sg glass( f )- nom . sg cost( ipfv ). prs .3 sg one[ m . acc . sg ] dollar( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘This glass costs one dollar.’

101. shoot at vystřelit

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Petr vystřeli-l na pták-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] shoot( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] on bird( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr shot at the bird.’

102. pour dát

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr da-l cukr do sklenic-e
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] put( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] sugar( m )[ acc . sg ] in glass( f )- gen . sg
‘Petr poured the sugar in the glass.’

103. lose ztratit

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr ztrati-l klíč-e
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] lose( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] key( m )- acc . pl
‘Petr lost his keys.’

104. sink potopit se

Valency pattern: NOM_doGEN
X: NOM
Y: doGEN
Locus: Y
polen-o se potopi-l-o do vod-y
log( n )- nom . sg refl . acc sink( pfv )- pst - n . sg in water( f )- gen . sg
‘The log sank in the water.’

105. kill zabít

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr zabi-l Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] kill( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr killed Michal.’

106. hit uhodit

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr uhodi-l Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] hit( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr hit Michal.’

107. kiss políbit

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr políbi-l Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] kiss( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr kissed Michal.’

108. read přečíst

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr přečet-l zajímav-ou knih-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] read( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] interesting- f . acc . sg book( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr read an interesting book.’

109. move (bodypart) pohnout

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petr pohnu-l prst-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] move( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] finger( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr moved his finger.’

110. respect vážit si

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Petr si váží Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . dat respect( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( m )- gen . sg
‘Petr respects Michal.’

111. be squeamish štítit se

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Petr se štítí špinav-ého nádob-í
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc be.squeamish( ipfv ). prs .3 sg dirty- n . gen . sg dishes( n )- gen . sg
‘Petr is squeamish about dirty dishes.’

112. be content spokojený + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Petr je spokojen-ý se sv-ým syn-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] be( ipfv ). prs .3 sg satisfied- m . nom . sg with one's- m . ins . sg son( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr is satisfied with his son.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

113. fall in love zamilovat se

Valency pattern: NOM_doGEN
X: NOM
Y: doGEN
Locus: Y
Petr se zamilova-l do Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc fall_in_love( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] in pn ( m )- gen . sg
‘Petr fell in love with Michal.’

114. trust věřit

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petr věří Michal-ovi
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] trust( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( m )- dat . sg
‘Petr trusts Michal.’

115. sympathise líto + COP

Valency pattern: DAT_GEN
X: DAT
Y: GEN
Locus: XY
Petr-ovi je líto matk-y
pn ( m )- dat . sg be( ipfv ). prs .3 sg sorry mother( f )- gen . sg
‘Petr sympathises with his mother.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

116. envy závidět

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petr závidí Michal-ovi
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] envy( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( m )- dat . sg
‘Petr envies Michal.’

117. be angry zlobit se

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Petr se zlobí na Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc make_angry( ipfv ). prs .3 sg on pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr is angry with Michal.’

118. be surprised překvapit

Valency pattern: ACC_NOM
X: ACC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-a ten dárek překvapi-l
pn ( m )- acc . sg this. m . nom . sg gift( m )[ nom . sg ] surprise( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]
‘Petr was surprised at this gift.’

119. love (tea) mít rád

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr rád čaj
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] have( ipfv ). prs .3 sg glad tea( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petr loves tea.’

120. enjoy užívat si

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr si užívá hork-ý čaj
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . dat enjoy( ipfv ). prs .3 sg hot- m . acc . sg tea( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petr enjoys hot tea.’

121. want chtít

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr chce nov-ej mobil
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] want( ipfv ). prs .3 sg new- m . acc . sg mobile_phone( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petr wants a new mobile phone.’

122. have a grudge naštvanej + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Petr je naštvanej na Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] be( ipfv ). prs .3 sg upset on pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr holds a grudge against Michal.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

123. take offence urazit se

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Petr se urazi-l
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc offend( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]
‘Petr got offended.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y cannot be overtly expressed.

124. upset rozesmutnit

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr rozesmutni-l Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] make_sad( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr upset Michal.’

125. marvel obdivovat se

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petr se tomu měst-u obdivova-l
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc this. n . dat . sg city( n )- dat . sg admire( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]
‘Petr was marvelled at this city.’

126. despise opovrhovat

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petr Michal-em opovrhuje
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] pn ( m )- ins . sg despise( ipfv ). prs .3 sg
‘Petr despises Michal.’

127. get upset zarmoutit se

Valency pattern: NOM_nadINS
X: NOM
Y: nadINS
Locus: Y
Petr se nad syn-em zarmouti-l
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc above son( m )- ins . sg sadden( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]
‘Petr got upset with his son.’

128. get irritated naštvat

Valency pattern: ACC_NOM
X: ACC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-a dcer-a naštva-l-a
pn ( m )- acc . sg daughter( f )- nom . sg irritate( pfv )- pst - f . sg
‘Petr got irritated with his daughter.’

129. be fond mít rád

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr rád Michal-a
ppn ( m )[ nom . sg ] have( ipfv ). prs .3 sg glad pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr is fond of Michal.’

130. be shy stydět se

Valency pattern: NOM_zaACC
X: NOM
Y: zaACC
Locus: Y
Petr se stydí za svoj-i mal-ou postav-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc be_shy( ipfv ). prs .3 sg for one's- f . acc . sg small- f . acc . sg stature( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr is embarrassed about his small height.’