BivalTyp

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Catalan

Contributed by Tatiana Repnina

T.R.'s photo

Isabel Serra and Silvia Villagrasa provided the data in 2022 in the capacity of native speakers of Catalan. The English version of the questionnaire was used for elicitation.

How to cite

Repnina, Tatiana. 2022. Bivalent patterns in Catalan. In: Say, Sergey (ed.). BivalTyp: Typological database of bivalent verbs and their encoding frames. St. Petersburg: Institute for Linguistic Studies, RAS. (Data first published on February 22, 2022; last revised on August 10, 2022.) (Available online at https://www.bivaltyp.info, Accessed on )

Basic info

Basic clause structure and the transitive construction

The basic word order in Catalan is SVO. In the basic transitive construction, the object remains unmarked. Signalling direct objects with the preposition a is only marginal in Catalan; thus, there is almost no Differential Object Marking (unlike in Spanish). There are no instances of direct objects signalled by a in the collected data.

Case system

In Catalan, there are no morphological cases on nouns. The distinctive feature of this language is the large quantity of unstressed pronouns that distinguish such cases as dative and accusative. The form of a pronoun depends on its position with respect to the verb, and whether it is adjacent to a vowel or a consonant in the verb. Combinations of unstressed pronouns can be cliticized to the same host.

Personal articles

Catalan uses the personal articles before people’s names, viz. en or el for masculine names and la for feminine names.

Verb lemmas

Verbs are shown in the infinitive form.

Data

Subset examples by valency pattern
Subset examples by locus

1. feel pain fer mal

Valency pattern: DAT_SBJ
X: DAT
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
al Pere li fa mal el cap
to. def . sg . m pn ( m ) 3 sg . dat make.3 sg . prs . ind pain( m ) def . sg . m head( m )
‘Pere has a headache.’

2. have (illness) tenir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere la grip
def . sg . m pn ( m ) have.3 sg . prs . ind def . sg . f flu( f )
‘Pere has the flu.’

3. be afraid tenir por

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
en Pere por del gos
def . sg . m pn ( m ) have.3 sg . prs . ind fear( f ) of. def . sg . m dog( m )
‘Pere is afraid of the dog.’

4. throw llançar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va llanç-ar un-a pedra
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind throw- inf indf - sg . f stone( f )
‘Pere threw a stone.’

5. have enough tenir prou

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ara en Pere prou diner-s
now def . sg . m pn ( m ) have.3 sg . prs . ind enough money( m - pl )
‘Now Pere has enough money.’
Note: Not included in the database because the intended meaning is expressed by a structurally discontinuous combination (predicate + adnominal modifier).

6. resemble assemblar-se

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
en Pere s'assembla a en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) refl .3 sg -look.like-3 sg . prs . ind to def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere resembles Marc.’
Note: Cf. *en Pere s'hi assembla*

7. believe creure

Valency pattern: SBJ_en
X: SBJ
Y: en
Locus: Y
en Pere creu en la Maria
def . sg . m pn ( m ) believe.3 sg . prs . ind in def . sg . f pn ( f )
‘Pere believes Maria.’

8. take agafar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va agaf-ar un llibre
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind take- inf indf . sg . m book( m )
‘Pere took a book.’

9. see veure

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere veu un-a casa
def . sg . m pn ( m ) see.3 sg . prs . ind indf - sg . f house( f )
‘Pere sees a house.’

10. influence afectar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
l'edat afect-a la memòria
def . sg . f -age( f ) influence-3 sg . prs . ind def . sg . f memory( f )
‘Age influences memory.’

11. encounter trobar-se

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere es va trob-ar en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) refl .3 sg go.3 sg . prs . ind meet- inf def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere ran into Marc.’

12. enter entrar

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
en Pere va entr-ar a la casa
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind enter- inf to def . sg . f house( f )
‘Pere entered the house.’
Note: Cf. *en Pere hi va entrar*

13. win apallissar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va apalliss-ar en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind win- inf def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere beat Marc.’

14. go out sortir

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
en Pere va sort-ir de la casa
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind exit- inf of def . sg . f house( f )
‘Pere went out of the house.’

15. drive pasturar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere està pastur-ant un-a vaca
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind lead- ger indf - sg . f cow( f )
‘Pere is driving the cow.’

16. bend doblegar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va dobleg-ar la branca
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind bend- inf def . sg . f branch( f )
‘Pere bent the branch.’

17. tell dir

Valency pattern: SBJ_DAT
X: SBJ
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
en Pere va dir al Marc…
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind say. inf to. def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere told Marc: …’
Note: Cf. *en Pere li va dir*

18. hold agafar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere està agaf-ant un llibre
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind hold- ger indf . sg . m book( m )
‘Pere is holding a book.’

19. catch up atrapar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va atrap-ar la Maria
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind catch- ind def . sg . f pn ( f )
‘Pere caught up with Maria.’

20. milk munyir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va muny-ir la vaca
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind milk- inf def . sg . f cow( f )
‘Pere milked the cow.’

21. reach arribar

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
en Pere va arrib-ar al banc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind reach- inf to. def . sg . m bank( m )
‘Pere reached the bank.’
Note: Cf. *en Pere hi va arribar*

22. touch tocar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va toc-ar la paret
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind touch- inf def . sg . f wall( f )
‘Pere touched the wall.’

23. fight barallar-se

Valency pattern: SBJ_amb
X: SBJ
Y: amb
Locus: Y
en Pere s'està barall-ant amb en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) refl .3 sg -be.3 sg . prs . ind fight- ger with def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere is fighting with Marc.’

24. be friends ser amic

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
en Pere és amic de la Maria
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind friend( m ) of def . sg . f pn ( f )
‘Pere is friends with Maria.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

25. think pensar

Valency pattern: SBJ_en
X: SBJ
Y: en
Locus: Y
en Pere està pens-ant en la Maria
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind think- ger in def . sg . f pn ( f )
‘Pere is thinking about Marc.’

26. eat menjar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va menj-ar un-a poma
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind eat- inf indf - sg . f apple( f )
‘Pere ate an apple.’

27. fry fregir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va freg-ir peix
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind fry- inf fish( m )
‘Pere fried the fish.’

28. wait esperar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere està esper-ant en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind wait- ger def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere is waiting for Marc.’

29. forget oblidar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va oblid-ar l'altre camí
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind forget- inf def . sg . m -other. sg . m road( m )
‘Pere forgot (about) the other road.’

30. depend variar

Valency pattern: SBJ_amb
X: SBJ
Y: amb
Locus: Y
la memòria vari-a amb l'edat
def . sg . f memory( f ) depend-3 sg . prs . ind with def . sg . f -age( f )
‘Memory depends on age.’

31. call trucar

Valency pattern: SBJ_DAT
X: SBJ
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
en Pere va truc-ar al Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind call- inf to. def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere called Marc.’
Note: Cf. *en Pere li va trucar*

32. get to know conèixer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va conèix-er en Marc fa un any
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind know- inf def . sg . m pn ( m ) ago indf . sg . m year( m )
‘Pere got to know Marc a year ago.’

33. know conèixer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere coneix en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) know.3 sg . prs . ind def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere knows Marc.’

34. play (instrument) tocar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere està toc-ant la guitarra
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind play- ger def . sg . f guitar( f )
‘Pere is playing the guitar.’

35. avoid evitar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere evit-a en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) avoid-3 sg . prs . ind def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere avoids Marc.’

36. make fer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va fer un-a ratonera
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind make- inf indf - sg . f mousetrap( f )
‘Pere made a mousetrap.’

37. make fun burlar-se

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
en Pere es burl-a del Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) refl .3 sg mock-3 sg . prs . ind of. def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere is making fun of Marc.’

38. have tenir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere un cotxe
def . sg . m pn ( m ) have.3 sg . prs . ind indf . sg . m car( m )
‘Pere has a car.’

39. look for buscar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere està busc-ant les seves clau-s
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind seek- ger def . pl . f poss .3. f . pl key.( f )- pl
‘Pere is looking for his keys.’

40. paint pintar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va pint-ar la tanca
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind paint- inf def . sg . f fence( f )
‘Pere painted the fence.’

41. bite mossegar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
un gos va mosseg-ar en Pere
indf . sg . m dog( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind bite- inf def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘A dog bit Pere.’

42. forfeit perdre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va perdre la seva casa
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind loose. inf def . sg . f . poss .3. f . sg house( f )
‘Pere lost his house.’

43. try to catch intentar atrapar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere està intent-ant atrap-ar el gat
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind try- ger catch- inf def . sg . m cat( m )
‘Pere is trying to catch the cat.’

44. break trencar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va trenc-ar un pal
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind break- inf indf . sg . m stick( m )
‘Pere broke a stick.’

45. flatter afalagar

Valency pattern: SBJ_amb
X: SBJ
Y: amb
Locus: Y
en Pere està afalag-ant amb la Maria
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind flatter- ger with def . sg . f pn ( f )
‘Pere is flattering Maria.’

46. love (person) estimar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere estim-a la Maria
def . sg . m pn ( m ) love-3 sg . prs . ind def . sg . f pn ( f )
‘Pere loves Maria.’

47. wave agitar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere agit-a un mocador
def . sg . m pn ( m ) wave-3 sg . prs . ind indf . sg . m handkerchief( m )
‘Pere is waving a handkerchief.’

48. dream somiar

Valency pattern: SBJ_en
X: SBJ
Y: en
Locus: Y
en Pere està somi-ant en un nou cotxe
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind dream- ger in indf . sg . m new( m ) sg car( m )
‘Pere is dreaming of a new car.’

49. wash rentar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere rent-ava la copa
def . sg . m pn ( m ) wash-3 sg . ipfv . ind def . sg . f cup( f )
‘Pere washed the cup.’

50. put on posar-se

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere es pos-a els seus pantalon-s
def . sg . m pn ( m ) refl .3 sg put.on-3 sg . prs . ind def . pl . m poss .3. m . pl trousers- pl . m
‘Pere put on his trousers.’

51. be called dir-se

Valency pattern: SBJ_PRED
X: SBJ
Y: PRED
Locus: Y
aquest-a eina es diu brúixola
this. sg - f instrument( f ) refl .3 sg say.3 sg . prs . ind compass( f )
‘This tool is called a compass.’

52. punish castigar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va castig-ar el seu fill
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind punish- inf def . sg . m poss .3. m . sg son( m )
‘Pere punished his son.’

53. attack atacar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
un os va atac-ar un pescador
indf . sg . m bear( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind attack- inf indf . sg . m fisherman( m )
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

54. fill (intr) estar ple

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
la galleda est-ava plena d'aigua
def . sg . f bucket( f ) be-3 sg . ipfv . ind full. sg . f of-water( f )
‘The bucket filled with water.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

55. find trobar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va trob-ar les seves clau-s
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind find- inf def . pl . f poss .3. f . pl key( f )- pl
‘Pere found his keys.’

56. be short faltar

Valency pattern: DAT_SBJ
X: DAT
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
al Pere li falt-en deu euro-s
to. def . sg . m pn ( m ) 3 sg . dat lack-3 pl . prs . ind ten euro( m )- pl
‘Pere is short ten euros.’

57. hate odiar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere odi-a en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) hate-3 sg . prs . ind def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere hates Marc.’

58. like agradar

Valency pattern: DAT_SBJ
X: DAT
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
al Pere li agrad-a aquesta samarreta
to. def . sg . m pn ( m ) 3 sg . dat like-3 sg . prs . ind this. sg - f shirt( f )
‘Pere likes this shirt.’

59. need necessitar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere necessit-a diner-s
def . sg . m pn ( m ) need-3 sg . prs . ind money( m )- pl
‘Pere needs money.’

60. surround envoltar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
les paret-s envolt-en la ciutat
def . pl . f wall( f )- pl surround-3 pl . prs . ind def . sg . f city( f )
‘Walls surround the city.’

61. remain quedar

Valency pattern: DAT_SBJ
X: DAT
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
al Pere li qued-en deu euro-s
to. def . sg . m pn ( m ) dat .3 sg remain-3 pl . prs . ind ten euro( m )- pl
‘Pere has ten euros left.’

62. answer contestar

Valency pattern: SBJ_DAT
X: SBJ
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
en Pere va contest-ar al professor
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind answer- inf to. def . sg . m teacher( m )
‘Pere answered the teacher.’
Note: Cf. *en Pere li va contestar*

63. open obrir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va obr-ir un-a llauna
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind open- inf indf - sg . f can( f )
‘Pere opened a can.’

64. be different ser diferent

Valency pattern: SBJ_que
X: SBJ
Y: que
Locus: Y
no, la meva camisa és diferent que la teva
no def . sg . f poss .1 sg . f . sg shirt( f ) be.3 sg . prs . ind different than def . sg . f poss .2 sg . f . sg
‘No, my shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

65. fall behind quedar enrere

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
en Pere va qued-ar enrere del Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind remain- inf behind of. def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere fell behind Marc.’

66. plough llaurar

Valency pattern: SBJ_en
X: SBJ
Y: en
Locus: Y
en Pere està llaurant-ant en el seu camp
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind plough- ger in def . sg . m poss .3. m . sg field( m )
‘Pere is ploughing the field.’

67. smell fer olor

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
les meves man-s fan olor de benzina
def . pl . f poss .1 sg . f . pl hand( f )- pl make.3 pl . prs . ind smell( f ) of petrol( f )
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

68. cross creure

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va creu-ar la carretera
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind cross- inf def . sg . f road( f )
‘Pere crossed the road.’

69. sing cantar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va cant-ar un-a cançó bonic-a
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind sing- inf indf - sg . f song( f ) beautiful- f . sg
‘Pere sang a beautiful song.’

70. write escriure

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va escriu-re un-a carta
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind write- inf indf - sg . f letter( f )
‘Pere wrote a letter.’

71. drink beure

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va beure la llet
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind drink( inf ) def . sg . f milk( f )
‘Pere drank the milk.’

72. melt desfer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va desf-er un troç de plom
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind melt- inf indf . sg . m piece( m ) of lead( m )
‘Pere melted a piece of lead.’

73. match anar

Valency pattern: SBJ_amb
X: SBJ
Y: amb
Locus: Y
aquest cinturó em va amb el meu vestit
this. sg . m belt( m ) me go.3 sg . prs . ind well with def . sg . m my dress( m )
‘This belt goes well with my dress.’

74. leave deixar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va deix-ar la seva ciutat nativ-a
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind leave- inf def . sg . f poss .3. f . sg city( f ) native- f . sg
‘Pere left his native city.’

75. cover cobrir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
la catifa cobreix tot el terra del pis
def . sg . f carpet( f ) cover.3 sg . prs . ind all def . sg . m ground of. def . sg . m flat( m )
‘The carpet covers the whole floor.’

76. remember recordar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere record-a la casa
def . sg . m pn ( m ) remember-3 sg . prs . ind well def . sg . f house( f )
‘Pere remembers the house well.’

77. help ajudar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va ajud-ar en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind help- inf def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere helped Marc.’

78. understand (language) entendre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere entèn francès
def . sg . m pn ( m ) understand.3 sg . prs . ind f rench( m )
‘Pere understands French.’

79. hit (target) entrar

Valency pattern: SBJ_dins
X: SBJ
Y: dins
Locus: Y
la il·luminació va entr-ar dins la casa
def . sg . f lightning( f ) go.3 sg . prs . ind enter- inf in def . sg . f house( f )
‘Lightning hit the house.’

80. cut oneself tallar-se

Valency pattern: SBJ_amb
X: SBJ
Y: amb
Locus: Y
en Pere es va tall-ar amb un-a navalla
def . sg . m pn ( m ) refl .3 sg go.3 sg . prs . ind cut- inf with def - sg . f razor( f )
‘Pere cut himself with a razor.’

81. get stuck quedar encallat

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
el got va qued-ar encall-at a la taula
def . sg . m glass( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind remain- inf stick- ptcp . m to def . sg . f table( f )
‘The glass got stuck to the table.’
Note: Cf. *el got hi va quedar encallat*

82. lose (game) perdre

Valency pattern: SBJ_contra
X: SBJ
Y: contra
Locus: Y
en Pere va perdre contra en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind lose. inf towards def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere lost to Marc.’

83. be glad estar content

Valency pattern: SBJ_per
X: SBJ
Y: per
Locus: Y
en Pere est-ava content per la carta
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be-3 sg . ipfv . ind glad( m ) for def . sg . f letter( f )
‘Pere was glad about the letter.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

84. speak parlar

Valency pattern: SBJ_amb
X: SBJ
Y: amb
Locus: Y
en Pere està parl-ant amb en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind talk- ger with def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere is speaking with Marc.’

85. give birth donar a llum

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
la Maria va don-ar a llum un fill
def . sg . f pn ( f ) go.3 sg . prs . ind give- inf to light( f ) indf . sg . m son( m )
‘Maria gave birth to a son.’

86. drop caure's

Valency pattern: DAT_SBJ
X: DAT
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
al Pere se li va cau-re el got
to. def . sg . m pn ( m ) refl .3 sg dat .3 sg go.3 sg . prs . ind fall- inf def . sg . m glass( m )
‘Pere dropped the glass.’

87. govern dirigir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere dirigeix la nostra ciutat
def . sg . m pn ( m ) command.3 sg . prs . ind def . sg . f poss .1 pl . f . sg city( f )
‘Pere runs our town.’

88. miss trobar a faltar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere trob-a a falt-ar la Maria
def . sg . m pn ( m ) find-3 sg . prs to be_missing- inf def . sg . f pn ( f )
‘Pere misses Maria.’

89. follow seguir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere segueix en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) follow.3 sg . prs . ind def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere follows Marc.’

90. dismount baixar

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
en Pere va baix-ar del cavall
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind go_down- inf of. def . sg . m horse( m )
‘Pere got down from the horse.’

91. listen escoltar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere està escolt-ant la ràdio
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind listen- ger def . sg . f radio( f )
‘Pere is listening to radio.’

92. obey obeir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere sempre obeeix la seva mare
def . sg . m pn ( m ) always obey.3 sg . prs . ind def . sg . f poss .3. f . sg mother( f )
‘Pere always obeys his mother.’

93. hear escoltar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere escolt-a música
def . sg . m pn ( m ) hear-3 sg . prs . ind music( f )
‘Pere hears the music.’

94. mix barrejar

Valency pattern: SBJ_amb
X: SBJ
Y: amb
Locus: Y
va barrej-ar la llet amb la mel
go.3 sg . prs . ind mix- inf def . sg . f milk( f ) with def . sg . f honey( f )
‘The honey got mixed with the milk.’

95. look mirar

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
en Pere està mir-ant als núvol-s
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind look- ger to. def . pl . m cloud( m )- pl
‘Pere is looking at the clouds.’
Note: Cf. *en Pere hi està mirant*

96. take off treure's

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere es va treu-re la camisa
def . sg . m pn ( m ) refl .3 sg go.3 sg . prs . ind remove- inf def . sg . f shirt( f )
‘Pere took off his shirt.’

97. dream (sleeping) somiar

Valency pattern: SBJ_amb
X: SBJ
Y: amb
Locus: Y
en Pere somi-a amb la Maria
def . sg . m pn ( m ) dream-3 sg . prs . ind with def . sg . f pn ( f )
‘Pere dreams about Maria.’

98. agree estar d’acord

Valency pattern: SBJ_amb
X: SBJ
Y: amb
Locus: Y
en Pere est-ava d'acord amb la Maria
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be-3 sg . ipfv . ind in_accord with def . sg . f pn ( f )
‘Pere agreed with Maria.’

99. have a quarrel tenir una baralla

Valency pattern: SBJ_amb
X: SBJ
Y: amb
Locus: Y
en Pere va ten-ir un-a barall-a amb la Maria
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind have- inf indf - sg . f quarrel-( f ) with def . sg . f pn ( f )
‘Pere had a quarrel with Maria.’

100. cost costar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
aquest-a tassa cost-a un euro
this- sg . f cup( f ) cost-3 sg . prs . ind indf . sg . m euro( m )
‘This cup costs 1 euro.’

101. shoot at disparar

Valency pattern: SBJ_DAT
X: SBJ
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
en Pere va dispar-ar a l'ocell
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind shoot- inf to def . sg . m -bird( m )
‘Pere shot at the bird.’
Note: Cf. *en Pere li va disparar*

102. pour abocar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va aboc-ar el sucre a la tassa
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind pour- inf def . sg . m sugar( m ) to def . sg . f cup( f )
‘Pere poured the sugar (into the cup).’

103. lose perdre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va perdre les clau-s
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind lose. inf def . pl . f key( f )- pl
‘Pere lost his keys.’

104. sink enfonsar-se

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
el tronc es va enfons-ar a l'aigua
def . sg . m branch( m ) refl .3 sg go.3 sg . prs . ind sink- inf to def . sg . f -water( f )
‘The log sank in the water.’
Note: Cf. *el tronc s'hi va enfonsar*

105. kill matar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va mat-ar en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind kill- inf def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere killed Marc.’

106. hit colpejar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va colpej-ar en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind hit- inf def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere hit Marc.’

107. kiss besar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va bes-ar la Maria
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind kiss- inf def . sg . f pn ( f )
‘Pere kissed Maria.’

108. read llegir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va lleg-ir un llibre interessant
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind read- inf indf . sg . m book( m ) interesting( m )
‘Pere read an interesting book.’

109. move (bodypart) moure

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va mou-re el seu dit
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind move- inf def . sg . m poss .3. m . sg finger( m )
‘Pere moved his finger.’

110. respect respectar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere respect-a en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) respect-3 sg . prs . ind def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere respects Marc.’

111. be squeamish fer fàstic

Valency pattern: DAT_SBJ
X: DAT
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
al Pere li fan fàstic els plat-s brut-s
to. def . sg . m pn ( m ) dat .3 sg make.3 pl . prs . ind disgust( m ) def . pl . m dish( m )- pl dirty( m )- pl
‘Pere is squeamish about dirty dishes.’

112. be content estar content

Valency pattern: SBJ_per
X: SBJ
Y: per
Locus: Y
en Pere està content pel seu fill
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind glad( m ) for. def . sg . m poss .3. m . sg son( m )
‘Pere is content with his son.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

113. fall in love enamorar-se

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
en Pere es va enamor-ar de la Maria
def . sg . m pn ( m ) refl .3 sg go.3 sg . prs . ind fall_in_love- inf of def . sg . f pn ( f )
‘Pere fell in love with Maria.’

114. trust confiar

Valency pattern: SBJ_en
X: SBJ
Y: en
Locus: Y
en Pere confi-a en la Maria
def . sg . m pn ( m ) trust-3 sg . prs . ind in def . sg . f pn ( f )
‘Pere trusts Maria.’

115. sympathise compadir-se

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
en Pere es compadeix de la seva mare
def . sg . m pn ( m ) refl .3 sg feel_sorry.3 sg . prs . ind of def . sg . f poss .3. f . sg mother( f )
‘Pere sympathises with his mother.’

116. envy envejar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere envej-a en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) envy-3 sg . prs . ind def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere envies Marc.’

117. be angry estar enfadat

Valency pattern: SBJ_amb
X: SBJ
Y: amb
Locus: Y
en Pere està enfadat amb en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind angry( m ) with def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere is angry with Marc.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

118. be surprised quedar sorprès

Valency pattern: SBJ_per
X: SBJ
Y: per
Locus: Y
en Pere va qued-ar sorprès pel regal
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind remain- inf surprised. m for. def . sg . m gift( m )
‘Pere was surprised at this gift.’

119. love (tea) agradar

Valency pattern: DAT_SBJ
X: DAT
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
al Pere li agrad-a el te
to. def . sg . m pn ( m ) dat .3 sg like-3 sg . prs . ind def . sg . m tea( m )
‘Pere loves tea.’

120. enjoy disfrutar

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
en Pere disfrut-a de l'aigua calenta
def . sg . m pn ( m ) enjoy-3 sg . prs . ind of def . sg . f -water( f ) hot( f )
‘Pere enjoys hot tea.’

121. want voler

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere vol un nou telèfon mòbil
def . sg . m pn ( m ) want.3 sg . prs . ind indf . sg . m new( m ) phone( m ) mobile
‘Pere wants a new mobile phone.’

122. have a grudge estar enfadat

Valency pattern: SBJ_amb
X: SBJ
Y: amb
Locus: Y
en Pere està enfadat amb en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind angry( m ) with def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere has a grudge against Marc.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

123. take offence ofendre's

Valency pattern: SBJ_amb
X: SBJ
Y: amb
Locus: Y
en Pere es va ofend-re amb en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) refl .3 sg go.3 sg . prs . ind offend- inf with def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere took offence at Marc.’

124. upset molestar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va molest-ar molt en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind bother- inf a_lot def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere greatly upset Marc.’

125. marvel quedar impressionat

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
en Pere va qued-ar impressionat d’aquest poble
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind remain- inf impressed( m ) of-this. sg . m city( m )
‘Pere was impressed by this town.’

126. despise menysprear

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere menyspre-a en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) despise-3 sg . prs . ind def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere despises Marc.’

127. get upset enfadar-se

Valency pattern: SBJ_per.culpa
X: SBJ
Y: per.culpa
Locus: Y
en Pere es va enfad-ar per culpa del seu fill
def . sg . m pn ( m ) refl .3 sg be.3 sg . prs . ind angry- inf for fault( f ) of. def . sg . m poss .3. m . sg son( m )
‘Pere got upset because of his son.’

128. get irritated enfadar-se

Valency pattern: SBJ_amb
X: SBJ
Y: amb
Locus: Y
en Pere s'enfad-a amb la seva filla
def . sg . m pn ( m ) refl .3 sg -get_angry-3 sg . prs . ind with def . sg . f poss .3. f . sg daughter( f )
‘Pere is getting irritated with his daughter.’

129. be fond ser carinyós

Valency pattern: SBJ_amb
X: SBJ
Y: amb
Locus: Y
en Pere és carinyós amb en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind affectionate( m ) with def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere is fond of Marc.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

130. be shy estar avergonyit

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
en Pere està avergonyit de la seva alçada
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind shy( m ) of def . sg . f poss .3. f . sg height( f )
‘Pere is shy about his height.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.