BivalTyp

Budugh

Contributed by Gilles Authier (Academia.edu profile)

G.A.'s photo A.H.'s photo

The data were collected in 2024 using the Russian and Azerbaijani versions of the questionnaire. The data have been generously provided by Adigözel Haciyev (pictured on the right-hand side photo above).

How to cite

Authier, Gilles. 2024. Bivalent patterns in Budugh. In: Say, Sergey (ed.). BivalTyp: Typological database of bivalent verbs and their encoding frames. (Data first published on March 17, 2024; last revised on March 17, 2024.) (Available online at https://www.bivaltyp.info, Accessed on .)

Basic info

Data

Subset examples by valency pattern
Subset examples by locus

1. feel pain

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
aslan-a' yaman q'ıl tutkor-i
pn - loc terribly head( a ) hurt. ipf - prs
‘Aslan has a headache.’

2. have (illness)

Valency pattern: NOM_NOM(NO.AGR)
X: NOM
Y: NOM(NO.AGR)
Locus: Y
aslan grip saxha-ci
pn flu ( m )be. pf - nar
‘Aslan has the flu.’

3. be afraid

Valency pattern: DAT_ABL
X: DAT
Y: ABL
Locus: XY
aslan-ız xor-a'r kiç' yıxhar-i
pn - dat dog- abl fear ( n )be. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is afraid of the dog.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

4. throw

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır ğaye ğicebgir-ci
pn - erg stone( a ) a .throw. pf - nar
‘Aslan threw a stone.’

5. have enough

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
aslan-ız hil pul çuraq'ar-i
pn - dat now money arrive. ipf - prs
‘Now Aslan has enough money.’

6. resemble

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
aslan mixayil-a' uxşami yıxhar-i
pn pn - loc resemble ( m )be. ipf - prs
‘Aslan resembles Mikhail.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

7. believe

Valency pattern: ERG_LOC
X: ERG
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
aslan-ır rosul-a' ina'm ʕöşğü-rü
pn - erg pn - loc faith a .bring. ipf - prs
‘Aslan believes Rasul.’

8. take

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır ref-il-a'r kita'b ğevin-ci
pn - erg shelf- obl - abl book( a ) a .take. pf - nar
‘Aslan took a book from the shelf.’

9. see

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
aslan-ız k'ul ürqhü-rü
pn - dat house( a ) a .see. ipf - prs
‘Aslan sees a house.’

10. influence

Valency pattern: ERG_LOC
X: ERG
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
ya'ş-ın-ır ya'dda'ş-ca tesir siʔi-ri
year- obl - erg keepsake- loc effect n .do. ipf - prs
‘Age influences memory.’

11. encounter

Valency pattern: NOM_zin
X: NOM
Y: zin
Locus: Y
aslan rosul-uzun ra'stla'şmi saxha-ci
pn pn -with meeting ( m )be. pf - nar
‘Aslan encountered Rasul.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

12. enter

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
aslan k'ul-ca ʕaç'u-ci
pn house- loc go_in. pf - nar
‘Aslan entered the house.’

13. win

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

14. go out

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
aslan k'ul-ca'r ğaç'u-ci
pn house- obl . abl go_out. pf - nar
‘Aslan went out of the house.’

15. drive

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır zar xham-ıla' çoroğu-ri
pn - erg cow pasture- obl . loc a .drive. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is driving the cow to the pasture.’

16. bend

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır budağ egmi siʔir-ci veq'il-ci
pn - erg branch bend n .do. pf - nar twist. pf - nar
‘Aslan bent the branch.’

17. tell

Valency pattern: ERG_ADR
X: ERG
Y: ADR
Locus: Y
aslan-ır rosul-ovon yıpa-ci vın ye-ce ğuş
pn - erg pn - adr say. pf - nar 2. nom 1 pl . obl - loc come( imper )
‘Aslan told Rasul: come and visit us.’

18. hold

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır uga' xab-a' sab kita'b süqhür-cü
pn - erg refl . loc hand- loc one. a book( a ) a .hold. pf - nar
‘Aslan is holding a book in his hands.’

19. catch up

Valency pattern: NOM_DIR
X: NOM
Y: DIR
Locus: Y
aslan leyla'-xun çurq'u-ci
pn pn - dir h .arrive. pf - nar
‘Aslan caught up with Leyla.’

20. milk

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır zar savaza-ci
pn - erg cow a .milk. pf - nar
‘Aslan milked the cow.’

21. reach

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
aslan sahil-ce çurq'u-ci
pn shore- obl . loc h .arrive. pf - nar
‘Aslan reached the bank.’

22. touch

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
aslan diva'r-ca vaka-ci
pn wall- obl . loc attach. pf - nar
‘Aslan touched the wall.’

23. fight

Valency pattern: ERG_zin
X: ERG
Y: zin
Locus: Y
aslan-ır rosul-uzun da'vʕa süʔü-ra'vi
pn - erg pn -with fight( a ) a .do. ipf - prog
‘Aslan is fighting with Rasul.’

24. be friends

Valency pattern: ERG_zin
X: ERG
Y: zin
Locus: Y
aslan-ır rosul-uzın dustuvol siʔi-ra'vi
pn - erg pn -with friendship n .do. ipf - prog
‘Aslan is friends with Rasul.’

25. think

Valency pattern: ERG_LOC
X: ERG
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
aslan-ır leyla' güre-ce fikir süʔü-ra'vi
pn - erg pn considering- loc thought( a ) a .do. ipf - prog
‘Aslan is thinking about Leyla.’

26. eat

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır yeç söʔül-cü.
pn - erg apple a .eat. pf - nar
‘Aslan ate an apple.’

27. fry

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır ba'luğ sebʕir-ci
pn - erg fish a .cook. pf - nar
‘Aslan fried the fish.’

28. wait

Valency pattern: ERG_LOC
X: ERG
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
aslan-ır rosul-a' ʕül ʕave-ci
pn - erg pn - loc eye( a ) a .put_in. pf - nar
‘Aslan is waiting for Rasul.’

29. forget

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır laʔa rix k'eʕan söxün-cü
pn - erg other road( a ) heart. lat a .forget. pf - nar
‘Aslan forgot about the other road.’

30. depend

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
ya'dda ya'ş-ın-a'r asıli vi
memory age- obl - abl depending cop
‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

31. call

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır rosul naʕra siʔir-ci
pn - erg pn call n .do. pf - nar
‘Aslan called Rasul.’

32. get to know

Valency pattern: NOM_zin
X: NOM
Y: zin
Locus: Y
aslan şeşe rosul-uzun tanış saxha-ci
pn the_year_before pn -with known ( m )be. pf - nar
‘Aslan got to know Rasul a year ago.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

33. know

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
aslan-ız rosul hats'ar-i
pn - dat pn m .know. ipf - prs
‘Aslan knows Rasul.’

34. play (instrument)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır gitara çorot'u-ri
pn - erg guitar play. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is playing the guitar.’

35. avoid

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
aslan rosul-a'r çekinmi yıxhar-i
pn pn - abl avoid ( m )be. ipf - prs
‘Aslan avoids Rasul.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

36. make

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır q'al-ild-o q'ap duzaltmi siʔir-ci
pn - erg mouse- obl - gen trap arrange n .do. pf - nar
‘Aslan made a mousetrap.’

37. make fun

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
aslan rosul-a' sataşmi yıxhar-i
pn pn - loc annoying ( m )be. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is making fun of Rasul.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

38. have

Valency pattern: APUD_NOM
X: APUD
Y: NOM
Locus: X
aslan-ox hulu dam-ca ma'şin vi
pn - apud just_this moment- loc car cop
‘Aslan has a car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

39. look for

Valency pattern: NOM_DIR
X: NOM
Y: DIR
Locus: Y
aslan heçer-boxun ʕalsal-a'vi
pn key- pl . dir explore. ipf - prog
‘Aslan is looking for his keys.’

40. paint

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır hasar renglemi süʔür-cü
pn - erg fence( a ) paint a .do. pf - perf
‘Aslan painted the fence.’

41. bite

Valency pattern: ERG_LOC
X: ERG
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
xor-ur aslan-a' k'ısa-ci
dog- erg pn - loc bite. pf - nar
‘A dog bit Aslan.’

42. forfeit

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
aslan ug-o k'ul-ca-kir maħrım saxha-ci
pn refl - gen house- obl - part deprived ( m )be. pf - nar
‘Aslan lost his house.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

43. try to catch

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır gaç surqhu-ra'vi
pn - erg cat hold. ipf - prog
‘Aslan is trying to catch the cat.’

44. break

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır raz soğu-ci
pn - erg stick break. pf - nar
‘Aslan broke a stick.’

45. flatter

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
aslan leyla' yaltağlenmi yıxhar-a'vi
pn pn . loc flatter ( m )be. ipf - prog
‘Aslan is flattering Leyla.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

46. love (person)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
aslan-ız leyla' yuko-ci
pn - dat pn a .want. pf - nar
‘Aslan loves Leyla.’

47. wave

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır ug-o yoyluğ dasmal yelletmi siʔi-ra'vi
pn - erg refl - gen veil tissue wave n .do. ipf - prog
‘Aslan is waving a veil.’

48. dream

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
aslan sad taza ma'şin-ce havas-ce vi
pn one. n recently car- loc desire- loc cop
‘Aslan is dreaming of a new car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

49. wash

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır suk'ra sebzin-ci
pn - erg vessel( a ) a .wash. pf - nar
‘Aslan washed the cup.’

50. put on

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır uga' şa'lva'r ğıxha-ci
pn - erg refl . loc trousers put_on. pf - nar
‘Aslan put on his trousers.’

51. be called

Valency pattern: ADR_NOM
X: ADR
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ulu ħacat-covon kompas yuʔu-ri
prox tool- obl . adr compass say. ipf - prs
‘This thing is called a compass.’
Note: Transimpersonal construction.

52. punish

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan-ır uga' duxor-uz caza yıva-ci
pn - erg refl . loc son. obl - dat punishment give. pf - nar
‘Aslan punished his son.’

53. attack

Valency pattern: ERG_LOCada
X: ERG
Y: LOCada
Locus: Y
sor-uldu-r ba'luğ-ça' ʕada' ħucum siʔir-ci
bear- obl - erg fisherman. loc on attack( n ) n .do. pf - nar
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

54. fill (intr)

Valency pattern: NOM_zin
X: NOM
Y: zin
Locus: Y
vedre xhiy-ezın sabts'a-ci
bucket( a ) water. obl -with a .fill. pf - nar
‘The bucket filled with water.’

55. find

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır heçer-ber q'axu-ci
pn - erg key- pl find. pf - nar
‘Aslan found his keys.’

56. be short

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
aslan-ız sad dullar çuraq'ar dad
pn - dat one. n dollar arrive. ipf neg . cop . n
‘Aslan is one dollar short.’

57. hate

Valency pattern: DAT_PART
X: DAT
Y: PART
Locus: XY
aslan-ız rosul-ekir iciğ ʕaşxar-i
pn - dat pn - obl . part anger come. ipf - prs
‘Aslan hates Rasul.’

58. like

Valency pattern: DAT_PART
X: DAT
Y: PART
Locus: XY
ulu pirem-cekir aslan-ız ħaz ʕaşxar-i
prox shirt- obl . part pn - dat pleasure come. ipf - prs
‘Aslan likes this shirt.’

59. need

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
aslan-ız pul la'zım i
pn - dat money necessary cop
‘Aslan needs money.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

60. surround

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
diva'r-beri şeher ehate süʔü-rü
wall- pl . erg town( a ) surround a .do. ipf - prs
‘Walls surround the city.’

61. remain

Valency pattern: APUD_NOM
X: APUD
Y: NOM
Locus: X
aslan-ux pa'ga'-ciz veʕi-dodu yıts'ıd dullar itkin-ci
pn - apud tomorrow- obl . dat cop . ptcp - neg . n . ptcp ten. n dollar n .remain. pf - nar
‘Aslan has ten dollars left for tomorrow.’

62. answer

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan-ır meʕlim-ciz cuğab yıva-ci
pn - erg teacher- dat answer give. pf - nar
‘Aslan answered the teacher.’

63. open

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır sab banka eçmi süʔür-cü
pn - erg one. a jar( a ) open a .do. pf - nar
‘Aslan opened a can.’

64. be different

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
a pirem va'-ye-kir seçilmi yuxhor-i
dist shirt( a ) you( sg )- obl - part chosen a .be. ipf - prs
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

65. fall behind

Valency pattern: NOM_ABLxan
X: NOM
Y: ABLxan
Locus: Y
aslan rosul-a'r xan irkin-ci
pn pn - abl after h .remain. pf - nar
‘Aslan fell behind Rasul.’

66. plough

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır nik şumlami siʔi-ri
pn - erg field plow n .do. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is ploughing the field.’

67. smell

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
za xabt'im-beʕar benzin-co neʕ ğaşxar-a'vi
1. obl hand- pl . abl oil- obl . gen smell come. ipf - prog
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

68. cross

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
aslan rix-a'r yoç'u-ci tuka'n-ca ʕaç'u-ci
pn road- abl pass. pf - nar shop- loc go_in. pf - nar
‘Aslan crossed the road and entered the shop.’

69. sing

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır kuçagi maʕni suxo-ci
pn - erg pretty song read. pf - nar
‘Aslan sang a beautiful song.’

70. write

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır mektub yezmi süʔür-cü
pn - erg letter( a ) write a .do. pf - nar
‘Aslan wrote a letter.’

71. drink

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır yux seğir-ci
pn - erg milk drink. pf - nar
‘Aslan drank the milk.’

72. melt

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır sad ç'uk'ol ğurğuşun aritmi süʔür-cü
pn - erg one. n piece lead( a ) melt a .do. pf - nar
‘Aslan melted a piece of lead.’

73. match

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
ulu ğeyiş za halavar-a' ğınaxha-ni
prox belt 1. obl clothes- loc suit. pf - seq
‘This belt goes well with my dress.’

74. leave

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
aslan ug-o duğma şeher-cer ğaç'u ğaç' vixhi-ci
pn refl - gen native town- abl go_out. pf out ( m )go. pf - nar
‘Aslan left his native city.’

75. cover

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
q'alça q'um-a' ba'şpütö çuroq'or-i
carpet( a ) ground- loc totally a .reach. ipf - prs
‘The carpet covers the whole floor.’

76. remember

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ug-o boʕlus saxha k'ul aslan-a' ʕari k'eʕan ipkin-ci
refl - gen older ( m )be. pf house( a ) pn - loc good heart. lat a .remain. pf - nar
‘Aslan remembers the house where he grew up well.’

77. help

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan-ır rosul-uz kumok süʔür-cü
pn - erg pn - dat help( a ) a .do. pf - nar
‘Aslan helped Rasul.’

78. understand (language)

Valency pattern: NOM_NOM(NO.AGR)
X: NOM
Y: NOM(NO.AGR)
Locus: Y
aslan fireng-co mez q'ala' ʕaraq'ar-i
pn f rench- obl . gen tongue( a ) head. obl . loc m .enter. ipf - prs
‘Aslan understands French.’

79. hit (target)

Valency pattern: NOM_LOCada
X: NOM
Y: LOCada
Locus: Y
ildirim k'ul-ca ʕada' atku-ci
lightning house- loc on n .fall. pf - nar
‘Lightning struck the house.’

80. cut oneself

Valency pattern: NOM_zin
X: NOM
Y: zin
Locus: Y
aslan ülgüc-cizın irdoxuna saxha-ci
pn razor-with in_blood ( m )be. pf - nar
‘Aslan cut himself with a razor.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

81. get stuck

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
iska'n masa-ca ğıka itkin-ci
glass table- loc ( n )stick_on. pf n .remain. pf - nar
‘The glass got stuck to the table.’

82. lose (game)

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan rosul-uz uduzmi saxha-ci
pn pn - dat losing ( m )be. pf - nar
‘Aslan lost to Rasul.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

83. be glad

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
aslan ğüxhü mektub-ca nuğa saxha-ci
pn come. pf letter- loc happy ( m )be. pf - nar
‘Aslan was glad about the letter.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

84. speak

Valency pattern: NOM_zin
X: NOM
Y: zin
Locus: Y
aslan rosul-u-zin ħaraq'ar-a'vi
pn pn - obl -with ( m )talk. ipf - prog
‘Aslan is speaking with Rasul.’

85. give birth

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
leyla'-ri sar dix xeye-ci
pn - erg one. h son m .give_birth. pf - nar
‘Leyla gave birth to a son.’

86. drop

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır iska'n q'um-a' saʕa-ci
pn - erg glass ground- loc ( n )throw. pf - nar
‘Aslan dropped the glass.’

87. govern

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan-ır ğesebe-ciz boʕlutuvol siʔi-ri
pn - erg we. gen village- dat leadership n .do. ipf - prs
‘Aslan runs our village.’

88. miss

Valency pattern: NOM_DATbadala
X: NOM
Y: DATbadala
Locus: Y
aslan leyla'-z badala darixmi yıxhar-a'vi
pn pn - dat for bored ( m )be. ipf - prog
‘Aslan misses Leyla.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

89. follow

Valency pattern: NOM_LOCxakila
X: NOM
Y: LOCxakila
Locus: Y
aslan rosul-a' xakila' çağar-i
pn pn - loc behind go. ipf - prs
‘Aslan follows Rasul.’

90. dismount

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
aslan xilğıld-a'r eşe-ci
pn horse. obl - abl dismount. pf - nar
‘Aslan got down from the horse.’

91. listen

Valency pattern: ERG_LOC
X: ERG
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
aslan-ır radyo-ca ibir ğusu-ra'vi
pn - erg radio- loc ear put_on. ipf - prog
‘Aslan is listening to radio.’

92. obey

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
aslan-ır ug-unda dido ç'el-oxun irħa-ra'vi
pn - erg refl - hpl . obl mother. gen word- dir look. pf - prog
‘Aslan always listens to his mother.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

93. hear

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
aslan-ız maʕni ixhi-ra'vi
pn - dat song hear. ipf - prog
‘Aslan hears the music.’

94. mix

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
yit yux-a' çixar saxha-ci
honey milk- loc mixed ( n )be. pf - nar
‘The honey got mixed with milk.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

95. look

Valency pattern: ERG_DIR
X: ERG
Y: DIR
Locus: Y
aslan-ır bultor-oxun irħa-ra'vi
pn - erg cloud. pl - dir look. pf - prog
‘Aslan is looking at the clouds.’

96. take off

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır uga' pirem avħa-ci
pn - erg refl . loc shirt( a ) a .take_off. pf - nar
‘Aslan took off his shirt.’

97. dream (sleeping)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
aslan-ız neq'ir-cik leyla' ürqhü-rü
pn - dat dream- obl . sub pn a .see. ipf - prs
‘Aslan dreams about Leyla.’

98. agree

Valency pattern: NOM_zin
X: NOM
Y: zin
Locus: Y
aslan leyla'-zın ra'zıleşmi saxha-ci
pn pn -with agreed ( m )be. pf - nar
‘Aslan agreed with Leyla.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

99. have a quarrel

Valency pattern: ERG_zin
X: ERG
Y: zin
Locus: Y
aslan-ır leyla'-zın da'vʕa süʔür-cü
pn - erg pn -with fight( a ) a .do. pf - nar
‘Aslan had a quarrel with Leyla.’

100. cost

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
ulu suk'ra suncu dullar-ca vi
prox vessel( a ) one. obl dollar- loc cop
‘This cup costs one dollar.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

101. shoot at

Valency pattern: ERG_LOC
X: ERG
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
aslan-ır ğuş-ula' ateş siʔir-ci
pn - erg bird- obl . loc shoot n .do. pf - nar
‘Aslan shot at the bird.’

102. pour

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır posug suk'ra-ca ʕabts'a-ci
pn - erg sugar( a ) vessel- loc a .pour. pf - nar
‘Aslan poured the sugar into the cup.’

103. lose

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır ug-o heçer-ber ʕagül-cü
pn - erg refl - gen key- pl lose. pf - nar
‘Aslan lost his keys.’

104. sink

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
k'ına' xhiye batmi soxho-ci
wood water. loc sink a .be. pf - nar
‘The log sank in the water.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

105. kill

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır rosul at'u-ci
pn - erg pn ( m )kill. pf - nar
‘Aslan killed Rasul.’

106. hit

Valency pattern: ERG_LOC
X: ERG
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
aslan-ır rosul-a' ğive-ci
pn - erg pn - loc a .put_on. pf - nar
‘Aslan hit Rasul.’

107. kiss

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan-ır leyla'-z k'uf yıva-ci
pn - erg pn - dat kiss( a ) give. pf - nar
‘Aslan kissed Leyla.’

108. read

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır marağlu sab kita'b suxo-ci
pn - erg interesting one. a book( a ) a .read. pf - nar
‘Aslan read an interesting book.’

109. move (bodypart)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır uga' t'il ğavatar süʔür-cü
pn - erg refl . loc finger( a ) a .shake. ipf a .do. pf - nar
‘Aslan moved his finger.’

110. respect

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan-ır rosul-uz ħürmet siʔi-ri
pn - erg pn - dat esteem n .do. ipf - prs
‘Aslan respects Rasul.’

111. be squeamish

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
aslan ʕaka ğab-ra'r igrenmi yıxhar-i
pn stick. pf vessel- pl . abl disgusted ( m )be. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is squeamish about dirty dishes.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

112. be content

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
aslan ug-a duxor-ikir ğaʕil i
pn refl - obl son. obl - part content cop
‘Aslan is satisfied with his son.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

113. fall in love

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
aslan leyla' vurulmi saxha-ci
pn pn . loc in_love ( m )be. pf - nar
‘Aslan fell in love with Leyla.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

114. trust

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır leyla' eħtiba'r süʔü-rü
pn - erg pn trust( a ) a .do. ipf - prs
‘Aslan trusts Leyla.’

115. sympathise

Valency pattern: DAT_LOC
X: DAT
Y: LOC
Locus: XY
aslan-ız ug-unda' dida' yozuğ-uvol ʕaşxar-i
pn - dat refl - hpl . loc mother. loc pitied- nmlz come. ipf - prs
‘Aslan sympathises with his mother.’

116. envy

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan-ır rosul-uz paxıruvol siʔi-ri
pn - erg pn - dat envy n .do. ipf - prs
‘Aslan envies Rasul.’

117. be angry

Valency pattern: NOM_LOCgure
X: NOM
Y: LOCgure
Locus: Y
aslan rosul-a' güre ç'innemi saxha-ci
pn pn - loc considering be_mad ( m )be. pf - nar
‘Aslan is angry with Rasul.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

118. be surprised

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
aslan ulu bexşeyiş-cekir teʕeccüblenmi saxha-ci
pn prox gift- obl . part surprised ( m )be. pf - nar
‘Aslan was surprised at this gift.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

119. love (tea)

Valency pattern: DAT_ABL
X: DAT
Y: ABL
Locus: XY
aslan-ız çay-ın-a'r ħaz ʕaşxar-i
pn - dat tea- obl - abl pleasure come. ipf - prs
‘Aslan loves tea.’

120. enjoy

Valency pattern: DAT_ABL
X: DAT
Y: ABL
Locus: XY
aslan-ız feyi çay-ın-a'r ħaz ʕaşxar-i
pn - dat warm tea- obl - abl pleasure come. ipf - prs
‘Aslan enjoys hot tea.’

121. want

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
aslan-ız taza cib-il-o telefun yıka-ci
pn - dat recently pocket- obl - gen telephone want. pf - nar
‘Aslan wants a new mobile phone.’

122. have a grudge

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
aslan rosul-ekir iciğlu vi
pn pn - obl . part angry cop
‘Aslan holds a grudge against Rasul.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

123. take offence

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
aslan rosul-ekir incimi saxha-ci
pn pn - obl . part offended ( m )be. pf - nar
‘Aslan took offence at Rasul.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

124. upset

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

125. marvel

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
aslan ulu şeher-ce heyran saxha-ci
pn prox town- loc impressed ( m )be. pf - nar
‘Aslan was impressed by this town.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

126. despise

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

127. get upset

Valency pattern: NOM_LOCgure
X: NOM
Y: LOCgure
Locus: Y
aslan uga' duxor-a' güre pert saxha-ci
pn refl . loc son. obl - loc considering unhappy ( m )be. pf - nar
‘Aslan got upset with his son.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

128. get irritated

Valency pattern: NOM_LOCgure
X: NOM
Y: LOCgure
Locus: Y
aslan ug-o rij-a' güre esebleşmi yıxhar-i
pn refl - gen girl- loc considering irritated ( m )be. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is getting irritated with his daughter.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

129. be fond

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

130. be shy

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
aslan uga' buy-un-a'r uta'nmi yıxhar-i
pn refl . loc size- obl - abl ashamed ( m )be. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is embarrased about his height.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.