BivalTyp

Bafut

Contributed by Nadege Nkwenti Lum.

N.L.'s photo

Nadege Nkwenti Lum provided and analyzed the data in 2024 in her capacity of a native speaker.

How to cite

Lum, Nadege Nkwenti. 2024. Bivalent patterns in Bafut. In: Say, Sergey (ed.). BivalTyp: Typological database of bivalent verbs and their encoding frames. (Data first published on May 30, 2024; last revised on June 23, 2024.) (Available online at https://www.bivaltyp.info, Accessed on )

Basic info

Data

Subset examples by valency pattern
Subset examples by locus

1. feel pain búʔù

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
àtû àmbɛ́ búʔù
head/ prep pn sm ache
‘Ambe has a headache.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

2. have (illness) tsí

Valency pattern: nu_SBJ
X: nu
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
àsáŋə̀ tsí nú àmbɛ́
flu stay body/ prep pn
‘Ambe has the flu.’

3. be afraid bɔ́ʔɔ̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ bɔ́ʔɔ̂ m̀bû já
pn sm be_afraid dog def
‘Ambe is afraid of the dog.’

4. throw màʔâ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ fùû màʔâ ŋ̀gɔ̀ʔɔ̀
pn sm first throw stone
‘Ambe threw a stone first.’

5. have enough tsí nkùʔû

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
àmbɛ́ tsí-nɨ̀ ŋkábɨ̀ nkùʔû
pn sm have- ipfv money sufficient
‘Ambe has enough money.’
Note: Not included in the database because the intended meaning is expressed by a structurally discontinuous combination (predicate + adnominal modifier).

6. resemble fíì

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ fíì sùù
pn sm resemble pn
‘Ambe resembles Suh.’

7. believe bíì

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ bíì-tɨ̀ sùù
pn sm believe- ipfv pn
‘Ambe believes Suh.’

8. take nlɔ̀gə̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ lɨ́ nlɔ̀gə̂ ŋwàʔànɨ̀
pn sm p 1 take book
‘Ambe took a book.’

9. see jə́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ jə́ ǹdâ
pn sm see house
‘Ambe sees a house.’

10. influence *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

11. encounter jə́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ jə́ sùù
pn sm p 2 see pn
‘Ambe encountered Suh’

12. enter kúû

Valency pattern: SBJ_mum
X: SBJ
Y: mum
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ kúû múm ǹdâ
pn sm p 2 enter inside house
‘Ambe entered the house.’

13. win ɣɔ́ɔ̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ ɣɔ́ɔ̂ sùù
pn sm p 2 beat pn
‘Ambe beat Suh.’

14. go out fɛ̀ʔɛ̂

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ fɛ̀ʔɛ̂ ǹdâ
pn sm p 2 go_out at house
‘Ambe went out from the house.’

15. drive jóŋə̂

Valency pattern: SBJ_a.ndim
X: SBJ
Y: ndim
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ jóŋə̂ ǹdᵼ̀m káù já
pn sm follow at back/ prep cow def
‘Ambe is driving the cow’.

16. bend ŋgᵼ́mə̀

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ ŋgᵼ́mə̀ tí já
pn sm p 2 bend stick def
‘Ambe bent the stick.’

17. tell ʃwóŋə̂

Valency pattern: SBJ_mbo
X: SBJ
Y: mbo
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ ʃwóŋə̂ mbô sùù tóŋə̂ ɣà fâ ŋ̀kwɛ̂fɔ̀
pn sm p 2 tell for pn call me this evening
‘Ambe told Suh: “Call me this evening”.’

18. hold tʃwá

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ tʃwá-kɨ́ ŋwàʔànɨ̀
pn sm hold- ipfv book
‘Ambe is holding a book.’

19. catch up tʃíʔî

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ tʃíʔî-tɨ̀ sùù
pn sm p 2 meet- ipfv pn
‘Ambe caught up with Suh.’

20. milk fíʔî

Valency pattern: SBJ_a.mum.nu
X: SBJ
Y: a.mum.nu
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ fíʔî mílíkə̀ múm nú káù já
pn sm p 2 remove milk at inside body/ prep cow def
‘Ambe milked the cow’ (lit.: ‘Ambe removed milk from inside the cow’s body’).

21. reach nkùʔû

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ nkùʔû ǹtsù mɨ̀jàà
pn sm p 2 reach mouth river
‘Ambe reached the river bank.’

22. touch mɔ̀ɔ̀ntə̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ mɔ̀ɔ̀ntə̂ àwùgə̀-ndâ já
pn sm p 2 touch wall-house def
‘Ambe touched the wall.’

23. fight ntô

Valency pattern: SBJ_ni
X: SBJ
Y: ni
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ ntô nɨ̀ sùù
pn sm fight with1 pn
‘Ambe is fighting with Suh.’

24. be friends bə̀ bɨ̀-nʃúkàʔâ

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
bìʔì bə̀ bɨ̀-nʃúkàʔâ sùù
we be pl -friend pn
‘We are Suh’s friends.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

25. think wáʔátə̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ wáʔátə̂-nɨ̀ sùù
pn sm think- ipfv pn
‘Ambe is thinking about Suh.’

26. eat nkwúrə̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ nkwúrə̂ m̀báŋə̀
pn sm p 2 eat palm_fruit
‘Ambe ate a palm fruit.’

27. fry nkàŋə̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ nkàŋə̂ fɨ̀bwè wá
pn sm p 2 fry fish def
‘Ambe fried the fish.’

28. wait júʔûtə́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ júʔûtə́-nɨ̀ sùù
pn sm wait- ipfv pn
‘Ambe is waiting for Suh.’

29. forget nlìʔìnə̀

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ nlìʔìnə̀-mə̂ mânʤì jídàŋ wá
pn sm forget- p 0 road other def
‘Ambe forgot the other road.’

30. depend *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

31. call twóŋə̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ twóŋə̂ sùù
pn sm p 2 call pn
‘Ambe called Suh.’

32. get to know ʒí

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ ʒí sùù ǹdᵼ̀m lòò jìmfùrᵼ̀
pn sm p 2 know pn at back/ prep year one
‘Ambe got to know Suh a year ago.’

33. know ʒî

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ ʒî sùù
pn sm know pn
‘Ambe knows Suh’

34. play (instrument) bùʔú

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ bùʔú-tɨ̀ nɨ̀lúŋə̀ njà
pn sm play- ipfv guitar def
‘Ambe is playing the guitar.’

35. avoid nkɣə̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ nkɣə̂ sùù
pn sm run pn
‘Ambe avoids Suh.’

36. make náŋsə́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
ambɛ́ kɨ̀ náŋsə́ mátáà kò fórə̀
pn sm p 2 make trap catch mouse
‘Ambe made a mousetrap.’

37. make fun wjè

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ wjè-nɨ̀ sùù
pn sm laugh- ipfv pn
‘Ambe is making fun of Suh.’

38. have tsí

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ tsí-nɨ̀ nɨ̀kjá
pn sm have- ipfv car
‘Ambe has a car.’

39. look for lɔ̀ɔ̀

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ lɔ̀ɔ̀ bɨ̀-kwáʔà bàʔà dʒí
pn sm look pl -opener door his
‘Ambe is looking for his keys.’

40. paint jɔ́ʔɔ́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kᵼ̀ jɔ́ʔɔ́ nkjàâ wà
pn sm p 2 rub fence def
‘Ambe painted the fence.’

41. bite nlóô

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
mbû kᵼ̀ nlóô àmbɛ́
dog sm p 2 bite pn
‘A dog bit Ambe.’

42. forfeit mbwé

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kᵼ̀ mbwé ǹdâ jì
pn sm p 2 lose house his
‘Ambe lost his house.’

43. try to catch nkô

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ nkô-tɨ̀ bùʃí wá
pn sm catch- ipfv cat def
‘Ambe is trying to catch the cat.’

44. break mbə́gə̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ mbə́gə̂ àtì
pn sm p 2 break stick
‘Ambe broke a stick.’

45. flatter mbwíʔìsə̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ mbwíʔìsə̂-nɨ̀ bì
pn sm deceive- ipfv pn
‘Ambe is flattering Bih.’

46. love (person) kɔ̀ŋə̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɔ̀ŋə̂ sùù
pn sm love pn
‘Ambe loves Suh.’

47. wave dárə̀sə̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ dárə̀sə̂-nᵼ̀ àjɛ́ʔɛ̀ nʃí
pn sm wave- ipfv wipe face
‘Ambe is waving a handkerchief.’

48. dream wáʔátə̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ wáʔátə̂-nɨ̀ nɨ̀kjá nìmfíî
pn sm think- ipfv car new
‘Ambe is dreaming of a new car.’

49. wash ʃíʔí

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ ʃíʔí ndɔ́ŋ já
pn sm p 2 wash cup def
‘Ambe washed the cup.’

50. put on sɔ́ʔɔ̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ sɔ́ʔɔ̂ tòlósà jì
pn sm p 2 wear trouser his
‘Ambe put on his trousers.’

51. be called ntóŋə̀

Valency pattern: DO_COMP
X: DO
Y: COMP
Locus: XY
bɨ́ ntóŋə̀ jú ndə̂ mə́ múnwí
they call this thing comp knife
‘This thing is called a knife.’
Note: This is a transimpersonal construction.

52. punish ɣɔ́ɔ̂

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ ɣɔ́ɔ̂ mú jì m̀bàŋnᵼ̀
pn sm p 2 beat child his male
‘Ambe beat his son.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

53. attack fúrᵼ̀tə̀

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
nààŋgwé kɨ̀ fúrᵼ̀tə̀ tákwúrə̀
lion sm p 2 attack leopard
‘A lion attacked a leopard.’

54. fill (intr) lúú

Valency pattern: SBJ_ni
X: SBJ
Y: ni
Locus: Y
àntɔ̀ɔ̀ wá lúú nᵼ̀ ŋ̀kxì
pot def sm be_full with water
‘The pot filled with1 water.’

55. find jə́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ jə́ bɨ̀-kwáʔà bàʔà dʒí
pn sm p 2 see pl -opener door his
‘Ambe found his keys.’

56. be short kə̀ʔə̂

Valency pattern: SBJ_ni
X: SBJ
Y: ni
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ kə̀ʔə̂-tɨ̀ nɨ̀ ǹtʃwùʔù
pn sm be_small- ipfv with1 one_thousand
‘Ambe is one thousand francs short.’

57. hate bǎ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ bǎ sùù
pn sm hate pn
‘Ambe hates Suh.’

58. like kɔ̀ŋə̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɔ̀ŋə̂ tsə̀ʔə̀ jú
pn sm like dress this
‘Ambe likes this shirt.’

59. need lɔ̀ɔ̀

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ lɔ̀ɔ̀-nɨ̀ ŋkábɨ̀
pn sm need- ipfv money
‘Ambe needs money.’

60. surround kárə̀

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
bɨ̀-wùgə̀-ndâ kárə̀-sᵼ̀ mûmə̀láʔà
pl -wall-house surround- ipfv village_center
‘Walls surround the village center.’

61. remain búrə̀

Valency pattern: SBJ_ni
X: SBJ
Y: ni
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ búrə̀ nᵼ̀ ŋkábɨ̀ dʒínᵼ̀wûm
pn sm be_left with1 money ten
‘Ambe has ten francs left.’

62. answer kwíʔî

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kᵼ̀ kwíʔî díʔì-ŋwàʔànɨ̀ wá
pn sm p 2 answer teach-book def
‘Ambe answered the teacher.’

63. open ŋáʔà

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ ŋáʔà-mə̂ tɔ́ʔɔ̂
pn sm open- p 0 can
‘Ambe opened a can.’

64. be different fìì + NEG

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
ŋgáŋ àtsə̀ʔə̀ jà kàâ sᵼ̀ jó jà fìì
no dress my neg neg your own resemble
‘No, my shirt is different from yours.’
Note: The preverbal position of the direct object is triggered by negation.

65. fall behind tᵼ̀gᵼ̀

Valency pattern: SBJ_a.ndim
X: SBJ
Y: ndim
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ lᵼ́ tᵼ̀gᵼ̀ ǹdᵼ̀m sùù
pn sm p 1 delay at back/ prep pn
‘Ambe fell behind Suh.’

66. plough lᵼ́gᵼ̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ lᵼ́gᵼ̂-tᵼ̀ ǹsàànᵼ̀ wá
pn sm plough- ipfv field def
‘Ambe is ploughing the field.’

67. smell lúm

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
m̀-bô má lúm ŋ̀kxì-mᵼ̀wúrᵼ̂
pl -hand my smell water-oil
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

68. cross dáŋə̀

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kᵼ̀ dáŋə̀ mândʒì wá
pn sm p 2 cross road def
‘Ambe crossed the road.’

69. sing njéê

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ lɛ́ njéê ᵼ̀kòò jîsᵼ́gᵼ́nᵼ̀
pn sm p 3 sing song nice
‘Ambe sang a beautiful song.’

70. write ŋwàʔànɨ́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kᵼ̀ ŋwàʔànɨ́ ŋwàʔànɨ̀
pn sm p 2 write letter
‘Ambe wrote a letter.’

71. drink nô

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ nô mílíkə̀ wá
pn sm p 2 drink milk def
‘Ambe drank the milk.’

72. melt tɔ̀ɔ̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ tɔ̀ɔ̂ àtᵼ̂
pn sm p 2 burn iron
‘Ambe melted a (piece of) iron.’

73. match kùʔùnə̂

Valency pattern: SBJ_ni
X: SBJ
Y: ni
Locus: Y
ᵼ́-bɔ̀ŋə̂ ᵼ̀kò jù kùʔùnə̂ nᵼ̀ àtsə̀ʔə̀ ɣà
it’s-nice belt this fit with1 dress my
‘Great, this belt goes well with my dress.’

74. leave lòô

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ lòô àláʔà jì
pn sm p 2 leave village his
‘Ambe left his village.’

75. cover bɔ̌ntᵼ̀

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àtsə̀ʔə̀ nʃjé já bɔ̌ntᵼ̀ ǹdâ já ǹtím
dress ground def cover house def whole
‘The carpet covers the whole floor.’

76. remember wáʔátə́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ wáʔátə́-nᵼ̀ ǹdâ já sᵼ́gᵼ́nᵼ̀
pn sm remember- ipfv house def well
‘Ambe remembers the house well.’

77. help kwɛ́tə̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ kwɛ́tə̂ sùù
pn sm p 2 help pn
‘Ambe helped Suh.’

78. understand (language) júʔu

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ júʔú-nɨ̀ ɣàâ tó njá
pn sm hear- ipfv language country def
‘Ambe understands the country’s language.’

79. hit (target) tɔ́ɔ̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
ŋkàʔâ-nwì kɨ̀ tɔ́ɔ̂ ǹdâ já
light-god sm p 2 hit house def
‘Lightning hit the house.’

80. cut oneself ʃjé

Valency pattern: SBJ_ni
X: SBJ
Y: ni
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ lɨ́ ʃjé nú jì nᵼ̀ ʃwáʔà
pn sm p 1 cut body/ prep his with1 razor
‘Ambe cut himself with a razor.’

81. get stuck ntáŋ

Valency pattern: SBJ_a.atu
X: SBJ
Y: a.atu
Locus: Y
ndɔ́ŋ já kᵼ̀ ntáŋ àtû àtɛ́tᵼ̀ njá
glass def sm p 2 stuck at head/ prep table def
‘The glass got stuck to the table.’

82. lose (game) wó

Valency pattern: SBJ_mbo
X: SBJ
Y: mbo
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ lɨ́ wó m̀bô sùù
pn sm p 1 fail for pn
‘Ambe lost to Suh.’

83. be glad dórə̀tᵼ́

Valency pattern: SBJ_mbi7i
X: SBJ
Y: mbi7i
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ kᵼ̀ dórə̀tᵼ́ mbᵼ́ʔᵼ́ ŋwàʔànɨ̀ já
pn sm p 2 be_glad about letter def
‘Ambe was glad about the letter.’

84. speak ɣàâ

Valency pattern: SBJ_ni
X: SBJ
Y: ni
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ ɣàâ-nᵼ̀ nᵼ̀ sùù
pn sm speak- ipfv with1 pn
‘Ambe is speaking with Suh.’

85. give birth dzwî

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
bì kɨ̀ dzwî mú-m̀bàŋnᵼ̀
pn sm p 2 give_birth child-male
‘Bih gave birth to a son.’

86. drop màʔâ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ màʔâ ndɔ́ŋ já
pn sm p 2 drop cup def
‘Ambe dropped the cup.’

87. govern nlìntə̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ nlìntə̂-nᵼ̀ láʔà jìʔì
pn sm look- ipfv village our
‘Ambe runs our village.’

88. miss *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

89. follow jóŋə̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ jóŋə̂ sùù
pn sm follow pn
‘Ambe follows Suh.’

90. dismount sᵼ́gə̂

Valency pattern: SBJ_a.ndim
X: SBJ
Y: ndim
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ sᵼ́gə̂ ǹdím léŋə́ wá
pn sm p 2 descend at back/ prep horse def
‘Ambe got down from the horse.’

91. listen júʔútə́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ júʔútə́-nᵼ̀ nᵼ̀lòŋ
pn sm listen- ipfv radio
‘Ambe is listening to radio.’

92. obey njúʔútə́ ǹtsù

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
àmbɛ́ ɣáʔásə̂ njúʔútə́ ǹtsù ǹdì jì
pn sm always listen mouth mother his
‘Ambe always obeys his mother.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

93. hear njúʔútə́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ njúʔútə́ ᵼ̀kòò wá
pn sm hear song def
‘Ambe hears the song.’

94. mix bóòntə́

Valency pattern: SBJ_bojo
X: SBJ
Y: bojo
Locus: Y
nú já lᵼ́ bóòntə́ bɔ́ʔɔ́ mílíkə̀ já
honey def sm p 1 mix with2. inan milk def
‘The honey got mixed with the milk.’

95. look líì

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ líì-nᵼ̀ búrə̀ já
pn sm look- ipfv clouds def
‘Ambe is looking at the clouds.’

96. take off tsɔ́ʔɔ́tə̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ tsɔ́ʔɔ́tə̂-mə̂ àtsə̀ʔə̀ jì
pn sm p 2 remove- p 0 dress his
‘Ambe took off his shirt.’

97. dream (sleeping) ndzə̂-lɛ̀

Valency pattern: SBJ_mbi7i
X: SBJ
Y: mbi7i
Locus: Y
ndzə̂-lɛ̀ àmbɛ́ mbᵼ́ʔᵼ́ sùù
dream-sleep pn about pn
‘Ambe dreams about Suh.’

98. agree bíì

Valency pattern: SBJ_ni
X: SBJ
Y: ni
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ bíì nᵼ̀ sùù
pn sm p 2 agree with1 pn
‘Ambe agreed with Suh.’

99. have a quarrel jɔ́ŋə̀

Valency pattern: SBJ_bo
X: SBJ
Y: bo
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ jɔ́ŋə̀ bó sùù
pn sm p 2 quarrel with2. anim pn
‘Ambe had a quarrel with Suh.’

100. cost COP

Valency pattern: SBJ_PRED
X: SBJ
Y: PRED
Locus: Y
ndɔ́ŋ jú ᵼ̀ ŋ̀kɣᵼ̀ jìmfùrᵼ̀
cup this sm hundred one
‘This cup costs one hundred.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate

101. shoot at túmə̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ túmə̂ sᵼ́ŋ wá
pn sm p 2 shoot bird def
‘Ambe shot the bird.’

102. pour nᵼ́ŋə́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ nᵼ́ŋə́ súgà wá
pn sm p 2 put sugar def
‘Ambe poured the sugar.’

103. lose ???

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ bɨ̀-kwáʔà bàʔà dʒí
pn sm p 2 pl -opener door his
‘Ame lost his keys.’

104. sink sɨ́gə̂ ɣɛ̀ɛ́

Valency pattern: SBJ_a.mfeng
X: SBJ
Y: a.mfeng
Locus: Y
mamúʔù tí wá kɨ̀ sɨ́gə̂ ɣɛ̀ɛ́ mfə̀ŋ ŋ̀kxì wá
big stick def sm p 2 descend go at buttocks/ prep water def
‘The log sank in the water.’

105. kill ʒwítə́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ ʒwítə́ sùù
pn sm p 2 kill pn
‘Ambe killed Suh.’

106. hit kwínə̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ kwínə̂ sùù
pn sm p 2 hit pn
‘Ambe hit Suh.’

107. kiss nɔ́ŋə̂ ǹtsù

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ nɔ́ŋə̂ ǹtsù bì
pn sm p 2 suck mouth pn
‘Ambe kissed Bih.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

108. read tóŋtᵼ́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ tóŋtᵼ́ ŋwàʔànɨ̀ jìmɔ́ʔɔ̀ mə́ bɔ́ŋə̂
pn sm p 2 read book certain that nice
‘Ambe read a certain nice book.’

109. move (bodypart) tsᵼ́gᵼ́nᵼ̀

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ tsᵼ́gᵼ́nᵼ̀ nʃwèbô jì
pn sm p 2 shake finger his
‘Ambe shook his finger.’

110. respect fá ŋgwóʔòrᵼ̀

Valency pattern: SBJ_mbo
X: SBJ
Y: mbo
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ fá ŋgwóʔòrᵼ̀ mbô sùù
pn sm give respect for pn
‘Ambe respects Suh.’

111. be squeamish *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

112. be content dórə̂tə̀

Valency pattern: SBJ_ni
X: SBJ
Y: ni
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ dórə̂tə̀ nᵼ̀ mú m̀bàŋnᵼ̀ jì
pn sm be_happy with1 child male his
‘Ambe is satisfied with his son.’

113. fall in love lɔ̀gᵼ̀nə̂ kɔ̀ŋə̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ lɔ̀gᵼ̀nə̂ kɔ̀ŋə̂ bì
pn sm p 2 begin love pn
‘Ambe fell in love Bih.’

114. trust bíì

Valency pattern: SBJ_nu
X: SBJ
Y: nu
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ bíí-nᵼ̀ nú sùù
pn sm agree- ipfv body/ prep pn
‘Ambe trusts Suh.’

115. sympathise kô mᵼ̀lᵼ̀ŋə̂

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
àmbɛ́ kô mᵼ̀lᵼ̀ŋə̂ ǹdì jì
pn sm catch sympathy mother his
‘Ambe sympathizes with his mother.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

116. envy tɛ́ʔɛ̂ nᵼ̀líʔî

Valency pattern: SBJ_a.atu.nu
X: SBJ
Y: a.atu.nu
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ tɛ́ʔɛ̂ nᵼ̀líʔî àtû nú sùù
pn sm put eye at head/ prep body/ prep pn
‘Ambe envies Suh.’

117. be angry lwǐ

Valency pattern: ntong_ni
X: ntong
Y: ni
Locus: XY
ntɔ̂ŋ àmbɛ́ ᵼ̀ lwǐ nᵼ̀ nú sùù
neck/ prep pn sm be_bitter with1 body/ prep pn
‘Ambe is angry with Suh.’

118. be surprised fúnᵼ̀

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ fúnᵼ̀ àndásᵼ̀ júà
pn sm p 2 surprise at gift this
‘Ambe was surprised at this gift.’

119. love (tea) kɔ̀ŋə̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɔ̀ŋə̂ tíí
pn sm love tea
‘Ambe loves tea.’

120. enjoy kɔ̀ŋə̂

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
àmbɛ́ kɔ̀ŋə̂ tíí ᵼ̀lòò
pn sm love tea hot
‘Ambe loves hot tea.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

121. want lɔ̀ɔ̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ lɔ̀ɔ̂ ndə̀ŋ jímfíî
pn sm want mobile_phone new
‘Ambe wants a new mobile phone.’

122. have a grudge bíʔî … múm ntᵼ́ᵼ́ jì

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ bíʔî-nᵼ̀ sùù múm ntᵼ́ᵼ́ jì
pn sm carry- ipfv pn inside heart his
‘Ambe is angry with Suh.’

123. take offence jáŋə̀

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
nù jìí mə̀ sùù ɣᵼ̀rə̂ ᵼ̀ kɨ̀ jáŋə̀ àmbɛ́
thing which comp pn make/do sm p 2 pain pn
‘What Suh did offended Ambe.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed in a dependent clause.

124. upset ɣᵼ̀rə̂ … lwǐ

Valency pattern: SBJ_ntong
X: SBJ
Y: ntong
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ ɣᵼ̀rə̂ ntɔ̂ŋ sùù lwǐ ʃíʔí ʃíʔí
pn sm make neck/ prep pn bitter a_lot a_lot
‘Ambe greatly upset Suh.’

125. marvel bɔ̀ŋə̂

Valency pattern: nu_a.nu
X: nu
Y: a.nu
Locus: XY
nú àmbɛ́ ᵼ̀ kɨ̀ bɔ̀ŋə̂ nù mûmə̀láʔà jú
body/ prep pn sm p 2 be_good at body/ prep village_center this
‘Ambe was impressed by this town.’

126. despise bǎ

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
àmbɛ́ bǎ sùù
pn sm hate pn
‘Ambe hates Suh.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

127. get upset lwǐ

Valency pattern: ntong_ni
X: ntong
Y: ni
Locus: XY
ntɔ̂ŋ àmbɛ́ ᵼ̀ kɨ̀ lwǐ nᵼ̀ mú jì m̀bàŋnᵼ̀
neck/ prep pn sm p 2 be_bitter with1 child his male
‘Ambe got upset with his son.’

128. get irritated kàmâ lwǐ

Valency pattern: ntong_ni
X: ntong
Y: ni
Locus: XY
ntɔ̂ŋ àmbɛ́ ᵼ̀ kàmâ lwǐ nᵼ̀ mú jì màŋgjè
neck/ prep pn sm getting bitter with1 child his female
‘Ambe is getting upset with his daughter.’

129. be fond kɔ̀ŋə̂

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
àmbɛ́ kɔ̀ŋə̂ tʃí m̀bɛ̀ɛ̀ bì
pn sm love sit/stay near pn
‘Ambe loves being near Bih.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

130. be shy dᵼ̀rə̂

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
àtû àmbɛ́ dᵼ̀rə̂ nlóŋmə́ wúʔù
head/ prep pn heavy because he short
‘Ambe is shy because he is short.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier and Y is expressed as a dependent clause. Non-verbal predicate.