BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

Azerbaijani

Contributed by Gilles Authier (Academia.edu profile), Ayten Babaliyeva and Murad Suleymanov.

G.A.'s photo A.B.'s photo

The data were collected in 2023 based on the Russian version of the questionnaire. Both Ayten Babalieva and Murad Suleymanov edited the dataset and clarified several tricky issues. The interlinearization belongs exclusively to Gilles Authier.

Before 2023, the project featured two consecutive preliminary versions of the Azerbaijani dataset. These were contributed by Leyla Kurbanova in 2012 and Evgenija Teplukhina in 2018 respectively.

How to cite

Authier, Gilles, Ayten Babaliyeva & Murad Suleymanov. 2023. Bivalent patterns in Azerbaijani. In: Say, Sergey (ed.). BivalTyp: Typological database of bivalent verbs and their encoding frames. (Data first published on November 11, 2023; last revised on June 6, 2024.) (Available online at https://www.bivaltyp.info, Accessed on .)

Basic info

Grammar notes

Basic clause structure and the transitive construction

Case marking displays the nominative-accusative alignment and differential object marking. In the basic transitive construction, the A-argument is in the unmarked nominative. The P-argument, if indefinite is also in the nominative, and must be placed just before the verb. Definite objects are in the accusative and more mobile. Non-core arguments are flagged by oblique case markers (and rarely postpositions). The verb agrees with the nominative subject (S/A) in number and person. Non-subjects are never indexed on the verb. Heads in possessive NPs take person-marking possessive suffixes placed before case markers.

Case system

There are 6 cases: nominative, accusative, genitive (for definite possessors), dative/lative, locative, ablative.

Verb lemmas

Verbs are cited in their infinitive form.

Glossing abbreviations

ABL — ablative; ACC — accusative; ADV — adverbializer; CAUS — causative; COP — copula; DAT — dative; GEN — genitive; IMP — imperative; IPFV — imperfective; INTR — intransitive; LAT — lative; LOC — locative; NEG — negation; PERF — perfect; PL — plural; PN — person name; POSS — possessive; PST — past; PTCP — participle; SG — singular; TR — transitive.

Data

Subset examples by valency pattern
Subset examples by locus

1. feel pain ağrımaq

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Aslan-ın yaman baş-ı ağrı-yır
pn - gen terrible head- poss 3 ache- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan has a terrible headache.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

2. have (illness) COP

Valency pattern: NOM_NOM(NO.AGR)
X: NOM
Y: NOM(NO.AGR)
Locus: Y
Aslan qrip-dir
pn flu- cop 3
‘Aslan has the flu.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

3. be afraid qorxmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Aslan it-dǝn qorx-ur
pn dog- abl fear- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is afraid of the dog.’

4. throw atmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan daş-ı at-dı
pn stone- acc throw- pst (3)
‘Aslan threw the stone.’

5. have enough çatmaq

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Aslan-ın bu saat pul-u çat-ır
pn - gen this moment money- poss 3 reach- ipfv (3)
‘Now Aslan has enough money.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

6. resemble oxşamaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan Mixail-ǝ oxşa-yır
pn pn - dat / lat look_like- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan resembles Mikhail.’

7. believe inanmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-a inan-ır
pn pn - dat / lat trust- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan believes Rasul.’

8. take götürmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan rǝf-dǝn kitab götür-dü
pn shelf- abl book take- pst (3)
‘Aslan took a book from the shelf.’

9. see görmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan ev gör-ür
pn house see- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan sees a house.’

10. influence təsir etmək

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
yaş yaddaş-a tǝsir ed-ir
age memory- dat / lat influence do- ipfv (3)
‘Age influences memory.’

11. encounter rastlaşmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_ile
X: NOM
Y: ile
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-la rastlaş-dı
pn pn -with meet- pst (3)
‘Aslan encountered Rasul.’
Note: The suffix "-la" is a contracted form of the postposition "ilǝ".

12. enter girmək

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan ev-ǝ gir-di
pn house- dat / lat enter- pst (3)
‘Aslan entered the house.’

13. win qalib gəlmək

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-a qalib gǝl-di
pn pn - dat / lat victorious come- pst (3)
‘Aslan beat Rasul.’

14. go out çıxmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Aslan ev-dǝn çıx-dı
pn house- abl go_out- pst (3)
‘Aslan went out of the house.’

15. drive sürmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan inǝyi otlağa sür-ür
pn cow. acc pasture. lat drive- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is driving the cow to the pasture.’

16. bend ǝymək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan budağı ǝy-di
pn branch. acc bend. tr - pst (3)
‘Aslan bent the branch.’

17. tell demək

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-a de-di biz-ǝ gǝl
pn pn - dat / lat say- pst (3) 1 pl - dat / lat come( imp )
‘Aslan told Rasul: "Come and visit us!"’

18. hold tutmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan ǝl-i-ndǝ bir kitab tut-ub
pn hand- poss 3- loc one book catch- perf (3)
‘Aslan is holding a book.’

19. catch up çatmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan Leyla-ya çat-dı
pn pn - dat / lat reach- pst (3)
‘Aslan caught up with Leyla.’

20. milk sağmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan inǝyi sağ-dı
pn cow. acc milk- pst (3)
‘Aslan milked the cow.’

21. reach çatmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan sahil-ǝ çat-dı
pn bank- dat / lat reach- pst (3)
‘Aslan reached the bank.’

22. touch toxunmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan divar-a toxun-du
pn wall- dat / lat touch- pst (3)
‘Aslan touched the wall.’

23. fight dalaşmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_ile
X: NOM
Y: ile
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-la dalaş-ır
pn pn -with fight- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is fighting with Rasul.’
Note: The suffix "-la" is a contracted form of the postposition "ilǝ".

24. be friends dostluq etmək

Valency pattern: NOM_ile
X: NOM
Y: ile
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-la dostluq ed-ir
pn pn -with friendship do- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is friends with Rasul.’
Note: The suffix "-la" is a contracted form of the postposition "ilǝ".

25. think düşünmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan Leyla-nı düşün-ür
pn pn - acc think- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is thinking about Leyla.’

26. eat yemək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan alma ye-di
pn apple eat- pst (3)
‘Aslan ate an apple.’

27. fry qızartmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan balığı qızar-t-dı
pn fish. acc fry- caus - pst (3)
‘Aslan fried the fish.’

28. wait gözləmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan Rǝsul-u gözlǝ-yir
pn pn - acc wait- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is waiting for Rasul.’

29. forget unutmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan digǝr yol-u unud-ub
pn other road- acc forget- perf (3)
‘Aslan forgot about the other road.’

30. depend asılı-COP

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
yaddaş yaş-dan asılı-dır
memory age- abl depending- cop 3
‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

31. call çağırmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan Rǝsul-u çağır-dı
pn pn - acc call- pst (3)
‘Aslan called Rasul.’

32. get to know tanış olmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_ile
X: NOM
Y: ile
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-la bir il bu-ndan ǝvvǝl tanış ol-ub
pn pn -with one year this- abl before known be(come)- perf (3)
‘Aslan got to know Rasul a year ago.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. The suffix "-la" is a contracted form of the postposition "ilǝ".

33. know tanımaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan Rǝsul-u tanı-yır
pn pn - acc know- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan knows Rasul.’

34. play (instrument) çalmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan gitara çal-ır
pn guitar play- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is playing the guitar.’

35. avoid çəkinmək

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-dan çǝk-in-ir
pn pn - abl pull- refl - ipfv (3)
‘Aslan avoids Rasul.’

36. make düzəltmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan siçan tǝlǝ-si düzǝl-t-di
pn rat trap- poss 3 be_correct- caus - pst (3)
‘Aslan made a mousetrap.’

37. make fun sataşmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-a sataş-ır
pn pn - dat / lat tease- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is making fun of Rasul.’

38. have var

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Aslan-ın bu saat maşın-ı var
pn - gen this moment car- poss 3 exist
‘Aslan now has a car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

39. look for axtarmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan açar-lar-ı axtar-ır
pn key- pl - poss 3 look_for- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is looking for his keys.’

40. paint rəngləmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan hasar-ı rǝnglǝ-di
pn fence- acc paint- pst (3)
‘Aslan painted the fence.’

41. bite dişləmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
it Aslan-ı dişlǝ-di
dog pn - acc bite- pst (3)
‘A dog bit Aslan.’

42. forfeit mǝhrum olmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Aslan ev-i-ndǝn mǝhrum ol-ub
pn house- poss 3- abl deprived be(come)- perf (3)
‘Aslan lost his house.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

43. try to catch tutmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan pişiyi tut-ur
pn cat. acc catch- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is trying to catch the cat.’

44. break sındırmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan çubuğu sın-dır-dı
pn stick. acc break- caus - pst (3)
‘Aslan broke the stick.’

45. flatter yaltaqlanmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan Leyla-ya yaltaqlan-ır
pn pn - dat / lat flatter- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is flattering Leyla.’

46. love (person) sevmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan Leyla-nı sev-ir
pn pn - acc love- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan loves Leyla.’

47. wave yelləmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan dǝsmal-ı-nı yellǝ-yir
pn towel- poss 3- acc wave- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is waving a towel.’

48. dream arzu-POS-LOC-COP

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Aslan yeni bir maşın arzu-su-nda-dır
pn new one car wish- poss 3- loc - cop 3
‘Aslan is dreaming of a new car.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

49. wash yumaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan fincan-ı yu-du
pn cup- acc wash- pst (3)
‘Aslan washed the cup.’

50. put on geyinmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan şalvar-ı-nı gey-in-di
pn trousers- poss 3- acc put_on- refl - pst (3)
‘Aslan put on his trousers.’

51. be called adlanmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_NOM(NO.AGR)
X: NOM
Y: NOM(NO.AGR)
Locus: Y
bu ǝşya kompas adlan-ır
this thing compas be_named- ipfv (3)
‘This thing is called a compass.’

52. punish cəzalandırmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan oğlu-nu cǝzalan-dır-dı
pn son. poss 3- acc be_punished- caus - pst (3)
‘Aslan punished his son.’

53. attack hücum etmək

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
ayı balıqçı-ya hücum et-di
bear fisherman- dat / lat attack do- pst (3)
‘A bear attacked a fisherman.’

54. fill (intr) dolmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_ile
X: NOM
Y: ile
Locus: Y
vedrǝ su ilǝ dol-du
pail water with fill( intr )- pst (3)
‘The bucket filled with water.’

55. find tapmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan açar-lar-ı tap-dı
pn key- pl - poss 3 find- pst (3)
‘Aslan found his keys.’

56. be short çatmaq + NEG

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Aslan-ın bir dollar-ı çat-mır
pn - gen one dollar- poss 3 reach- neg . ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is one dollar short.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

57. hate nifrət etmək

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-a nifrǝt ed-ir
pn pn - dat / lat hate do- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan hates Rasul.’

58. like xoşu gəlmək

Valency pattern: GEN_ABL
X: GEN
Y: ABL
Locus: XY
Aslan-ın bu köynǝk-dǝn xoş-u gǝl-ir
pn - gen this shirt- abl good- poss 3 come- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan likes this shirt.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

59. need lazım-COP

Valency pattern: DATLAT_NOM
X: DATLAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Aslan-a pul lazım-dır
pn - dat / lat money necessary- cop 3
‘Aslan needs money.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

60. surround əhatə etmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
divar-lar şǝhǝr-i ǝhatǝ ed-ir
wall- pl town- acc encircle do- ipfv (3)
‘Walls surround the city.’

61. remain qalmaq

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Aslan-ın sabah-a cǝmi 10 dollar-ı qal-ıb
pn - gen tomorrow- dat / lat all_together 10 dollar- poss 3 remain- perf (3)
‘Aslan has ten dollars left for tomorrow.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

62. answer cavab vermək

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan müǝllim-ǝ cavab ver-di
pn teacher- dat / lat answer give- pst (3)
‘Aslan answered the teacher.’

63. open açmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan bir bǝrni aç-dı
pn one jar open- pst (3)
‘Aslan opened a jar.’

64. be different fǝrqlǝnmək

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
mǝnim köynǝyim sǝn-in-ki-ndǝn fǝrqlǝn-ir
1. gen shirt. poss 1 sg 2- gen -that- abl be_different- ipfv (3)
‘My shirt is different from yours.’

65. fall behind geri qalmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-dan geri qal-dı
pn pn - abl back remain- pst (3)
‘Aslan fell behind Rasul.’

66. plough şumlamaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan tarla-nı şumla-yır
pn field- acc plough- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is ploughing the field.’

67. smell qoxumaq

Valency pattern: NOM_NOM(NO.AGR)
X: NOM
Y: NOM(NO.AGR)
Locus: Y
mənim əl-lər-im benzin qoxu-yur
1. gen hand- pl - poss 1 sg gasoline smell- ipfv (3)
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: With this verb, the second argument does not trigger agreement and is never marked for the accusative case even if it is referentially salient (unlike with canonical transitive verbs). This verb belongs to the literary language (the more common alternative does not meet the inclusion criteria).

68. cross keçmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan yol-u keç-di mağaza-ya gir-di
pn road- acc pass- pst (3) and shop- dat / lat enter- pst (3)
‘Aslan crossed the road and entered the shop.’

69. sing oxumaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan gözǝl bir mahnı oxu-du
pn pretty one song read- pst (3)
‘Aslan sang a beautiful song.’

70. write yazmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan mǝktub yaz-dı
pn letter write- pst (3)
‘Aslan wrote a letter.’

71. drink içmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan süd-ü iç-di
pn milk- acc drink- pst (3)
‘Aslan drank the milk.’

72. melt əritmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan bir qurğuşun parça-sı ǝri-t-di
pn one lead piece- poss 3 melt- tr - pst (3)
‘Aslan melted a piece of lead.’

73. match yaraşmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
bu kǝmǝr mǝnim paltar-ım-a yaraş-ır
this belt 1. gen clothes- poss 1 sg - dat / lat suit- ipfv (3)
‘This belt goes well with my dress.’

74. leave tərk etmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan doğma şǝhǝr-i-ni tǝrk et-di
pn birth town- poss 3- acc leave do- pst (3)
‘Aslan left his native town.’

75. cover örtmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
xalça bütün döşǝmǝn-i ört-ür
carpet all floor- acc cover- ipfv (3)
‘The carpet covers the whole floor.’

76. remember yadında qalmaq

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
böyü-düy-ü ev Aslan-ın yaxşı yad-ı-nda qal-ıb
grow- ptcp . pst - poss 3 house pn - gen good memory- poss 3- loc remain- perf (3)
‘Aslan remembers the house where we grew up well.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

77. help kömək etmək

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-a kömǝk et-di
pn pn - dat / lat help do- pst (3)
‘Aslan helped Rasul.’

78. understand (language) başa düşmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan fransız dil-i-ni baş-a düş-ür
pn f rench language- poss 3- acc head- dat / lat descend- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan understands French.’

79. hit (target) vurmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ildırım ev-i vur-du
lightning house- acc strike- pst (3)
‘Lightning struck the house.’

80. cut oneself yaralanmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_ile
X: NOM
Y: ile
Locus: Y
Aslan ülgüc-lǝ yarala-n-dı
pn razor-with injure- pass - pst (3)
‘Aslan cut himself with a razor.’
Note: The suffix "-lǝ" is a contracted form of the postposition "ilǝ".

81. get stuck yapışmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
stǝkan masa-ya yapış-dı
glass table- dat / lat stick- pst (3)
‘The glass got stuck to the table.’

82. lose (game) uduzmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-a uduz-du
pn pn - dat / lat lose- pst (3)
‘Aslan lost to Rasul.’

83. be glad sevinmək

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan mǝktub-a sevin-di
pn letter- dat / lat be_glad- pst (3)
‘Aslan was glad about the letter.’

84. speak danışmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_ile
X: NOM
Y: ile
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-la danış-ır
pn pn -with talk- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is speaking with Rasul.’
Note: The suffix "-la" is a contracted form of the postposition "ilǝ".

85. give birth doğmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Leyla bir oğul doğ-du
pn one son give_birth- pst (3)
‘Leyla gave birth to a son.’

86. drop yerə salmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan stǝkan-ı yer-ǝ sal-dı
pn glass- acc place- dat / lat spread- pst (3)
‘Aslan dropped the glass.’

87. govern rəhbərlik etmək

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan qǝsǝbǝ-miz-ǝ rǝhbǝrlik ed-ir
pn area-1 pl - dat / lat guidance do- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan runs our place.’

88. miss darıxmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_ucun
X: NOM
Y: ucun
Locus: Y
Aslan Leyla üçün darıx-ır
pn pn for yearn- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan misses Leyla.’

89. follow getmək

Valency pattern: NOM_GENarxaPOSSca
X: NOM
Y: GENarxaPOSSca
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-un arxa-sı-nca ged-ir
pn pn - gen behind- poss 3- adv go- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan follows Rasul.’

90. dismount düşmək

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Aslan at-dan düş-dü
pn horse- abl descend- pst (3)
‘Aslan got down from the horse.’

91. listen qulaq asmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan radio-ya qulaq as-ır
pn radio- dat / lat ear hang- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is listening to radio.’

92. obey sözə baxmaq

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Aslan ana-sı-nın söz-ü-nǝ bax-ır
pn mother- poss 3- gen word- poss 3- dat / lat look- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan listens to his mother.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

93. hear eşitmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan musiq-i-ni eşid-ir
pn music- poss 3- acc hear- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan hears the music.’

94. mix qarışmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
bal süd-ǝ qarış-dı
honey milk- dat / lat mix( intr )- pst (3)
‘The honey got mixed with milk.’

95. look baxmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan bulud-lar-a bax-ır
pn cloud- pl - dat / lat look- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is looking at the clouds.’

96. take off soyunmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan köynǝyi-ni soy-un-du
pn shirt. poss 3- acc peel- refl - pst (3)
‘Aslan took off his shirt.’

97. dream (sleeping) yuxuda görmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan yuxu-da Leyla-nı gör-ür
pn sleep- loc pn - acc see- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan dreams about Leyla.’

98. agree razılaşmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_ile
X: NOM
Y: ile
Locus: Y
Aslan Leyla ilǝ razılaş-dı
pn pn with agree- pst (3)
‘Aslan agreed with Leyla.’

99. have a quarrel dalaşmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_ile
X: NOM
Y: ile
Locus: Y
Aslan Leyla ilǝ dalaş-dı
pn pn with fight- pst (3)
‘Aslan had a quarrel with Leyla.’

100. cost COP

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
bu fincan bir dollar-a-dır
this cup one dollar- dat / lat - cop 3
‘This cup costs 1 dollar.’
Note: Non-verbal (copular) predicate.

101. shoot at atəş açmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan quş-a atǝş aç-dı
pn bird- dat / lat fire open- pst (3)
‘Aslan shot at the bird.’

102. pour tökmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan şǝkǝr-i fincan-a tök-dü
pn sugar- acc cup- dat / lat pour- pst (3)
‘Aslan poured the sugar into the cup.’

103. lose itirmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan açar-lar-ı-nı itir-di
pn key- pl - poss 3- acc lose- pst (3)
‘Aslan lost his keys.’

104. sink batmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
girdin su-da bat-mış-dı
log water- loc sink- perf - pst (3)
‘The log sank in the water.’

105. kill öldürmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan Rǝsul-u öl-dür-dü
pn pn - acc die- caus - pst (3)
‘Aslan killed Rasul.’

106. hit vurmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan Rǝsul-u vur-du
pn pn - acc strike- pst (3)
‘Aslan hit Rasul.’

107. kiss öpmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan Leyla-nı öp-dü
pn pn - acc kiss- pst (3)
‘Aslan kissed Leyla.’

108. read oxumaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan maraqlı bir kitab oxu-du
pn interesting one book read- pst (3)
‘Aslan read an interesting book.’

109. move (bodypart) tǝrpǝtmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan barmağı-nı tǝrpǝt-di
pn finger. poss 3- acc move. tr - pst (3)
‘Aslan moved his finger.’

110. respect hörmət etmək

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-a hörmǝt ed-ir
pn pn - dat / lat respect do- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan respects Rasul.’

111. be squeamish iyrǝnmək

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Aslan çirkli qab-lar-dan iyrǝn-ir
pn dirty plate- pl - abl be_disgusted- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is squeamish about dirty dishes.’

112. be content razı-COP

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Aslan oğlu-ndan razı-dır
pn son. poss 3- abl agreeing- cop 3
‘Aslan is satisfied with his son.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

113. fall in love vurulmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan Leyla-ya vur-ul-du
pn pn - dat / lat strike- pass - pst (3)
‘Aslan fell in love with Leyla.’

114. trust etibar etmək

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan Leyla-ya etibar ed-ir
pn pn - dat / lat trust do- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan trusts Leyla.’

115. sympathise yazığı gəlmək

Valency pattern: GEN_DATLAT
X: GEN
Y: DATLAT
Locus: XY
Aslan-ın öz ana-sı-na yazığ-ı gǝl-ir
pn - gen self mother- poss 3- dat / lat pity- poss 3 come- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan sympathises with his mother.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

116. envy paxıllıq etmək

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-a paxıllıq ed-ir
pn pn - dat / lat envy do- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan envies Rasul.’

117. be angry qǝzǝblǝnmək

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-a qǝzǝblǝn-ib
pn pn - dat / lat be_angry- perf (3)
‘Aslan is angry with Rasul.’

118. be surprised tǝǝccüblǝnmək

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan bu hǝdiyyǝ-yǝ tǝǝccüblǝn-di
pn this gift- dat / lat be_surprised- pst (3)
‘Aslan was surprised at this gift.’

119. love (tea) xoşlamaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan çay xoşla-yır
pn tea like- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan loves tea.’

120. enjoy həzz almaq

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Aslan isti çay-dan hǝzz al-ır
pn hot tea- abl pleasure take- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan enjoys hot tea.’

121. want istəmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan yeni cib telefon-u istǝ-yir
pn new pocket telephone- poss 3 want- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan wants a new mobile phone.’

122. have a grudge acıqlı-COP

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-dan acıqlı-dır
pn pn - abl angry- cop 3
‘Aslan holds a grudge against Rasul.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

123. take offence incimək

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-dan inci-di
pn pn - abl be_pissed- pst (3)
‘Aslan took offence at Rasul.’

124. upset məyus etmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan Rǝsul-u çox mǝyus et-di
pn pn - acc very sad do- pst (3)
‘Aslan greatly upset Rasul.’

125. marvel heyran olmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan bu şǝhǝr-ǝ heyran ol-du
pn this town- dat / lat enthused be(come)- pst (3)
‘Aslan was impressed by this town.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

126. despise xor baxmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-a xor bax-ır
pn pn - dat / lat with_despise look- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan despises Rasul.’

127. get upset pərt olmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLATgore
X: NOM
Y: DATLATgore
Locus: Y
Aslan oğlu-na gör-ǝ pǝrt ol-du
pn son. poss 3- dat / lat see- manner sad be(come)- pst (3)
‘Aslan got upset with his son.’
Note: görǝ functions as a postposition (‘because of’, ‘according to’).

128. get irritated ǝsǝbilǝşmək

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan qız-ı-na ǝsǝbilǝş-ir
pn girl- poss 3- dat / lat be_pissed- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is getting irritated with his daughter.’

129. be fond rəğbət bəsləmək

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-a rǝğbǝt bǝslǝ-yir
pn pn - dat / lat fondness feed- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is fond of Rasul.’

130. be shy utanmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Aslan öz boy-u-ndan utan-ır
pn self size- poss 3- abl be_ashamed- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is embarrased about his height.’