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Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

Contributed by Sergey Say (Academia.edu profile)

S.S.'s photo

The data were gathered in 2019 in Urmiya, Krasnodar Krai, Russia. The Russian version of the questionnaire was used for elicitation. Data collection was supported by a grant from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research: “Documentation of Northeastern Neo-Aramaic spoken in Russia”, grant No. 20-012-00312.

How to cite

Say, Sergey. . Bivalent patterns in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic. In: Say, Sergey (ed.). BivalTyp: Typological database of bivalent verbs and their encoding frames. St. Petersburg: Institute for Linguistic Studies, RAS. (Data first published on August 19, 2020; last revised on November 15, 2020.) (Available online at https://www.bivaltyp.info, Accessed on .)

Basic info

"Assyrian Neo-Aramaic" is a conventional label for Northeastern Neo-Aramaic (NENA) varieties spoken by Christians who identify themselves as "Assyrians". Assyrians' homeland is a large area near the borders of modern (Northwestern) Iran, (Northern) Iraq, (Southeastern) Turkey and (Northeastern) Syria, as represented on the map . Presently, many Assyrians are dispersed around the world, including several communities in the South Caucasus and in the South of Russia. The data for this project were gathered from Assyrians living in Urmiya, Krasnodar Krai, Russia. A majority of Assyrians in Urmiya speak the Urmi dialect of NENA, originating from the area near Urmia in modern Iran. Other consultants are descendants of settlers originating from the highlands in the Southeast of modern Turkey. Sentences elicited from the latter group of speakers are marked "Non-Urmi speaker" below. Valency patterns in the Urmi and non-Urmi varieties attested in the village of Urmiya do not exhibit significant differences, but see (Say, 2020) for details.

Say, S. S. 2020. Markirovanie aktantov dvuxmestnyx predikatov v novoaramejskix idiomax sela Urmiya [Bivalent predicates’ argument encoding in Neo-Aramaic varieties spoken in Urmiya, Krasnodar Krai]. Acta Linguistica Petropolitana, V. 16, Part 2. 654-689. (in Russian)

Grammar notes

Basic clause structure and the transitive construction

There is no flagging for subjects (A- and S-arguments) or direct objects (P-arguments). The person, number and sometimes gender of the subject are obligatorily indexed on the verb, while indexing of the direct object is optional (Differential Object Indexing). The choice of indices for subjects and objects depends on tense and aspect, as summarized in Table 1.

Table 1. The choice of subject and object person indices in tense and aspect subsystems

Subject Direct object
Present S-suffixes (SS.1F etc.) L-suffixes (LS.1SG etc.)
Past L-suffixes (LS.1SG etc.) S-suffixes (SS.1F etc.)
Progressive Copulas (1M etc.) Possessive suffixes (P.1SG etc.)
Resultative Copulas (1M etc.) Possessive suffixes (P.1SG etc.)

The two variants of the transitive construction — with and without object indexing — are in (1) and (2).

(1) brata   ctava   dvəkt-u=la                  
    girl(F) book(M) seize.RES.F-P.3M=3F 
    ‘The girl is holding a book.’

(2) brata   dvəkt=əla      ctava
    girl(F) seize.RES.F=3F book(M)
    ‘The girl is holding a book.’

Non-core arguments are typically flagged by prepositions. Some non-core arguments have the status represented as "BARE", see (Say, in prep.) for details.

Case system

There is no morphological case on nouns.

Verb lemmas

Verbs are shown in the so-called patəx form: this is the present tense (PRS) form with the zero-realized 3rd person masculine singular S-suffix and no L-suffix.

Glossing abbreviations

1, 2, 3 — 1st, 2nd, 3rd person; DEM1, DEM2, DEM3, DEM4 — demonstratives; EXI — existential copula; F — feminine; LS — L-suffix; M — masculine; NEG — negation; O — object; OBL — oblique; P — possessive; PL — plural; PN — person name; PRF — perfect; PROG — progressive; PRON — pronoun; PRS — present; PST — past; REL — relator; RES — resultative; SS — S-suffix.

Data

Subset examples by valency pattern
Subset examples by locus

1. feel pain ( +marrə ):

Valency pattern: BARE_SBJ
X: BARE
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
brata riš-o +mray=əl
girl( f ) head( m )- p .3 f ache. prog =3 m
‘The girl has a headache.’

2. have (illness) ( +marrə ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_bi
X: SBJ
Y: bi
Locus: Y
brata +mrit=əla bi gripp
girl( f ) ache. res . f =3 f with flu( m )
‘The girl has the flu.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

3. be afraid ( +zadə ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
yala mən calba +bəzday=əl
boy( m ) from dog( m ) be_afraid. prog =3 m
‘The boy is afraid of the dog.’

4. throw ( +rappə ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
cipa +ruppi-la brata
stone( m ) throw. pst - ls .3 f girl( f )
‘The girl threw the stone.’

5. have enough ( xazə ):

Valency pattern: ka_SBJ
X: ka
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
adi zuyzə ka brata bəxzay=əna
now money( pl ) to girl( f ) see. prog =3 pl
‘Now the girl has enough money.’

6. resemble ( damə ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_al
X: SBJ
Y: al
Locus: Y
+avvo yala bədmay=əl +al savun-u
dem 3. m boy( m ) resemble. prog =3 m on grandfather( m )- p .3 m
‘This boy resembles his grandfather.’

7. believe ( hammən ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_al
X: SBJ
Y: al
Locus: Y
+avvo naša hammun=əl +al baxt-u
dem 3. m person( m ) believe. prog =3 m on woman( f )- p .3 m
‘This man believes his wife.’

8. take ( šakəl ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brata škəl-la ctava mən +ustol
girl( f ) take. pst - ls .3 f book( m ) from table( m )
‘The girl took the book from the table.’

9. see ( xazə ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brata xzi-la beta
girl( f ) see. pst - ls .3 f house( m )
‘The girl saw the house.’

10. influence ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

11. encounter ( tapək ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
yala tpək-lə mən švava
boy( m ) meet. pst - ls .3 m from neighbour( m )
‘The boy ran into his neughbor.’
Note: Some speakers use preposition am.

12. enter ( +avər ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_gu
X: SBJ
Y: gu
Locus: Y
brata +vər-ra gu beta
girl( f ) enter. pst - ls .3 f in house( m )
‘The girl entered the house.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

13. win ( +karəm ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
brata +krəm-la ka axun-o
girl( f ) win. pst - ls .3 f to brother( m )- p .3 f
‘The girl beat her brother.’

14. go out ( +paləṭ ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
brata +pləṭ-la mən beta
girl( f ) leave. pst - ls .3 f from house( m )
‘The girl went out of the house.’

15. drive ( +ṭarə ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brata +bəṭray=əla tavərt-o gu +bukra
girl( f ) drive. prog =3 f cow( f )- p .3 f in herd( m )
‘The girl is driving the cow to the pasture’ (lit. ‘into the herd’).
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

16. bend ( +ṭayəp ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
+Ašur +ṭip-e-lə +pavan=ət ilana
pn bend. pst - ss ( o ).3 pl - ls .3 m branch( m ). pl = rel tree( m )
‘Ashur bent the branch.’

17. tell ( tanə ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
+Ašur tuni-l ka +xor-u atə bet-u arxa
pn say. pst - ls .3 m to friend( m )- p .3 m come. prs house( m )- p .3 m guest( m )
‘Ashur told his friend: “Call me this evening.”’

18. hold ( davək ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brata ctava dvəkt-u=la id-o
girl( f ) book( m ) seize. res . f - p .3 m =3 f with hand( f )- p .3 f
‘The girl is holding a book in her hands.’

19. catch up ( +maṭə ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
naša +mṭi-l ka baxt-u
person( m ) arrive. pst - ls .3 m to woman( f )- p .3 m
‘The man caught up with his wife.’

20. milk ( +xaləv ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
baxta +xliv-e-la tavəryay
woman( f ) milk. pst - ss ( o ).3 pl - ls .3 f cow( f ). pl
‘The woman milked the cows.’

21. reach ( +maṭə ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_al
X: SBJ
Y: al
Locus: Y
naša +məṭy=əl +al bərza
person( m ) arrive. res . m =3 m on dry_land( m )
‘The man reached the bank.’

22. touch ( kayət ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_bi
X: SBJ
Y: bi
Locus: Y
yala kət-lə bi guyda
boy( m ) knock. pst - ls .3 m with wall( m )
‘The boy touched the wall.’

23. fight ( +ṗaləš ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
+Ašur +ṗlaš=əl mən švav-u
pn fight. prog =3 m from neighbour( m )- p .3 m
‘Ashur is fighting with his neighbor.’
Note: Some speakers use preposition am.

24. be friends ( avəd +xorvayta ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
yala +xorvayta vad=əl mən švav-u
boy( m ) friendship( f ) do. prog =3 m from neighbour( m )- p .3 m
‘The boy is friends with his neighbor.’
Note: Some speakers use preposition am.

25. think ( taxmən ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_bar
X: SBJ
Y: bar
Locus: Y
naša taxmun=əl +bar baxt-u
person( m ) think. prog =3 m after woman( f )- p .3 m
‘The man is thinking about his wife.’

26. eat ( +axəl ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
yala +xəl-lə xabuyša
boy( m ) eat. pst - ls .3 m apple( m )
‘The boy ate an apple.’

27. fry ( kalə ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
sava kuli-lə nuyna
old. m fry(tr). pst - ls .3 m fish( f )
‘The oldman fried the fish.’

28. wait ( xaməl ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_al
X: SBJ
Y: al
Locus: Y
yala bəxmal=əl +al švav-u
boy( m ) wait. prog =3 m on neighbour( m )- p .3 m
‘The boy is waiting for his neighbor.’

29. forget ( manšə ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
yala munšiyy-o=l crita urxa
boy( m ) forget. res . m - p .3 f =3 m short. f way( f )
‘The boy forgot about the other road.’

30. depend ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

31. call ( +karə ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
naša +kəry-a-l baxt-u
person( m ) call. pst - ss .3 f - ls .3 m woman( f )- p .3 m
‘The man called his wife.’

32. get to know ( +yaṭṭə ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
+Ašur kam-+yahə-la baxt-u tre šənnə kam hadiyya
pn prf -know. prs - ls .3 f woman( f )- p .3 m two year( f ). pl before now
‘Ashur got to know his wife two years ago.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker. +yahə is a dialect variant of the verb stem +yaṭṭə.

33. know ( +yaṭṭə ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
+Ašur +bədday=əl švav-u
pn know. prog =3 m neighbour( m )- p .3 m
‘Ashur knows his neighbor.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

34. play (instrument) ( +ṭavəl ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_al
X: SBJ
Y: al
Locus: Y
+Ašur ṭavul=ələ +al zurna
pn play. prog =3 m on zurna(?)
‘Ashur is playing the zurna.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

35. avoid ( +ṭašə gana ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
+Ašur gan-u +ṭašuy-o=l mən švav-u
pn refl ( f )- p .3 m hide(tr). prog - p .3 f =3 m from neighbour( m )- p .3 m
‘Ashur avoids his neighbor’ (lit. ‘hides himself from his neighbor’).

36. make ( +tarəs ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
+Ašur +turəs-lə cursa
pn build. pst - ls .3 m chair( m )
‘Ashur made a chair.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

37. make fun ( gaxəc ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_bi
X: SBJ
Y: bi
Locus: Y
+Ašur gaxəc bi švav-u
pn laugh. prs with neighbour( m )- p .3 m
‘Ashur will make fun of his neighbor.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker. The actual form of the verb stem in the example is [ɟaxət], most likely a dialect realization of gaxəc.

38. have ( ət ):

Valency pattern: OBJAGR_BARE
X: OBJAGR
Y: BARE
Locus: XY
+Ašur ət-lə mašina
pn exi - ls .3 m car( f )
‘Ashur has a car.’

39. look for ( +ṭavvə ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_bar
X: SBJ
Y: bar
Locus: Y
baxta +ṭavvuy=la +bar kdilə
woman( f ) seek. prog =3 f after key( m ). pl
‘The woman is looking for her keys.’

40. paint ( maxə rang ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
sava məxy-e-l rang guydanə
old. m beat. pst - ss ( o ).3 pl - ls .3 m color( m ) wall( m ). pl
‘The oldman painted the walls.’

41. bite ( +karəṭ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brata calba +krəṭ-o=l
girl( f ) dog( m ) bite. pst - p .3 f =3 m
‘A dog bit the girl.’

42. forfeit ( payəš ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_lab
X: SBJ
Y: la_b
Locus: Y
sava pəš-lə la b bet-u
old. m remain. pst - ls .3 m neg with house( m )- p .3 m
‘The oldman lost his house.’

43. try to catch ( davək ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brata bədvak-o=la +kaṭu
girl( f ) seize. prog - p .3 f =3 f cat( f )
‘The girl is trying to catch the cat.’

44. break ( +šaməṭ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
yala kesa +šməṭ-lə
boy( m ) wood( m ) break. pst - ls .3 m
‘The boy broke a stick.’

45. flatter ( maxə məšxa ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
yala mxay=ələ məšxa ka d-e brata
boy( m ) beat. prog =3 m fat( m ) to obl - dem 4. f girl( f )
‘The boy is flattering this girl.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

46. love (person) ( +bayyə ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
gavr-o +bəbah-o=lə baxt-u
man( m )- p .3 f love. prog - p .3 f =3 m woman( f )- p .3 m
‘Husband loves his wife.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker. +bəbah is a dialect variant of the progressive stem (+byay in the Urmi dialect).

47. wave ( +šayəš ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brata +bəššaš-o=la +yaləxta id-o
girl( f ) shake. prog - p .3 f =3 f handkerchief( f ) with hand( f )- p .3 f
‘The girl is waving a handkerchief.’

48. dream ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

49. wash ( +xalləl ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
baxta +xulləl-la +stican
woman( f ) wash. pst - ls .3 f glass( m )
‘The woman washed the glass.’

50. put on ( lavəš ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
yala lvəš-lə +šalvar
boy( m ) put_on. pst - ls .3 m trousers( m )
‘The boy put on his trousers.’

51. be called ( avə šəmma ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
+avva məndi šəmm-u kompas=əl
dem 2. m thing( m ) name( m )- p .3 m compass(?)=3 m
‘This thing is called a compass.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as a (non-verbal) predicate. Non-Urmi speaker.

52. punish ( +savər ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
baxta +suvər-ra ka brat-o
woman( f ) swear. pst - ls .3 f to girl( f )- p .3 f
‘The woman punished her daughter.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker. Arguably, the translation is not very accurate. +taləm 'to punish' seems to belong to the same class.

53. attack ( napəl ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_al
X: SBJ
Y: al
Locus: Y
dəbba pəl-la +al d-o naša
bear( f ) fall. pst - ls .3 f on obl - dem 4. m person( m )
‘A bear attacked a man.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

54. fill (intr) ( malə ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
vadra mli-lə miyya
bucket( m ) fill. pst - ls .3 m water( pl )
‘The bucket filled with water.’

55. find ( mačəx ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
yala mučx-e-lə kdilə
boy( m ) find. pst - ss ( o ).3 pl - ls .3 m key( m ). pl
‘The boy found the keys.’

56. be short ( NEG + xazə ):

Valency pattern: ka_SBJ
X: ka
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
ka +Ašur la xzi-lun zuyzə (zavən bilet)
to pn neg see. pst - ls .3 pl money( pl ) buy. prs ticket(?)
‘Ashur lacks the money to buy a ticket.’

57. hate ( ləbba ṗakkə ):

Valency pattern: BARE_men
X: BARE
Y: men
Locus: XY
ət +Ašur ləbb-u ṗkay=əl mən švav-u
rel pn heart( m )- p .3 m split(intr). prog =3 m from neighbour( m )- p .3 m
‘Ashur hates his neighbor.’

58. like ( xoš atə ):

Valency pattern: BARE_men
X: BARE
Y: men
Locus: XY
+Ašur xoš-u bitay=əla mən d-a +sudra
pn happiness( f )- p .3 m come. prog =3 f from obl - dem 1. sg shirt( f )
‘Ashur likes this shirt.’

59. need ( +lazəm ):

Valency pattern: ka_SBJ
X: ka
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
ka ayya baxta +lazəm=ən zuzə
to dem 2. f woman( f ) necessary=3 pl money( pl )
‘This woman needs money.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker. Non-verbal predicate.

60. surround ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

61. remain ( payəš ):

Valency pattern: ces_SBJ
X: ces
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
cəs yala sura pəš-lə əmma +manət zuzə
near boy( m ) small. m remain. pst - ls .3 m hundred rouble( m ) money( pl )
‘The boy has one hundred roubles left.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

62. answer ( yavvəl +ǧuvvab ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
yala yuvvəl-lə +ǧuvvab ka +rabi
boy( m ) give. pst - ls .3 m answer( m ) to teacher( m )
‘The boy answered the teacher.’

63. open ( patəx ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brata ptəx-la banka
girl( f ) open. pst - ls .3 f can(?)
‘The girl opened a can.’

64. be different ( parəš ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
+sudra di praš=əla mən d-e diyy-ux
shirt( f ) obl . pron .1 sg separate. prog =3 f from obl - dem 4. f obl . pron - p .2 m
‘My shirt is different from yours.’

65. fall behind ( payəš +baray ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
urza pəš-lə +baray mən baxta
man( m ) remain. pst - ls .3 m behind from woman( f )
‘The man fell behind the woman.’

66. plough ( +ṭarə ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
sava +bəṭray-o=l +mazra
old. m plough. prog - p .3 f =3 m field( f )
‘The oldman is ploughing the field.’

67. smell ( rexa atə ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
mən id-i rex=ət +nuyṭa bitay=əl
from hand( f )- p .1 sg smell( m )= rel oil( m ) come. prog =3 m
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

68. cross ( +avər ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
sava urxa +vər-a-l
old. m way( f ) enter. pst - ss .3 f - ls .3 m
‘The oldman crossed the road.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

69. sing ( zamər ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
xa yala zmər-rə d-a zmarta
one boy( m ) sing. pst - ls .3 m obl - dem 1. sg song( f )
‘The boy sang this song.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

70. write ( catəv ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
xa yala ctəv-lə xa ctava ka +xavr-u
one boy( m ) write. pst - ls .3 m one book( m ) to friend( m )- p .3 m
‘The boy wrote a letter.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

71. drink ( šatə ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brata šti-la +xalva
girl( f ) drink. pst - ls .3 f milk( m )
‘The girl drank the milk.’

72. melt ( mapšər ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
yala mupšər-rə prəzla
boy( m ) melt(tr). pst - ls .3 m iron( m )
‘The boy melted the iron.’

73. match ( laxəm ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
a camar bəlxam=əl ka +oym-i
dem 1. sg waist( m ) suit. prog =3 m to dress( f )- p .1 sg
‘This belt matches my dress.’

74. leave ( azəl ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
+Ašur xəš-lə mən mat=ət gan-u
pn go. pst - ls .3 m from village( f )= rel refl ( f )- p .3 m
‘Ashur left his native village.’

75. cover ( maccəs ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
+xali muccəs-la ka cullə +ustol
carpet( f ) cover. pst - ls .3 f to all table( m )
‘The carpet covers the whole table.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

76. remember ( taxər ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
sava +spay bətxar=ələ bet=ət gan-u
old. m good remember. prog =3 m house( m )= rel refl ( f )- p .3 m
‘The oldman remembers his house well.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

77. help ( avəd comac ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
+Ašur comac vəd-lə ka +xor-u
pn help( f ) do. pst - ls .3 m to friend( m )- p .3 m
‘Ashur helped his friend.’

78. understand (language) ( +ṗarmə ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brun-i +ṗarmuy=əl lišana=ət suray
son( m )- p .1 sg understand. prog =3 m language( m )= rel a ssyrian. pl
‘My son understands the Assyrian language.’

79. hit (target) ( maxə ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_gu
X: SBJ
Y: gu
Locus: Y
bərka mxi-l gu beta
lightning( m ) beat. pst - ls .3 m in house( m )
‘Lightning hit the house.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

80. cut oneself ( parəm gana ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_bi
X: SBJ
Y: bi
Locus: Y
yala gan-u prim-a-l bi +magreta
boy( m ) refl ( f )- p .3 m cut. pst - ss .3 f - ls .3 m with razor( f )
‘The boy cut himself with a razor.’

81. get stuck ( +šayyə ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_al
X: SBJ
Y: al
Locus: Y
stacan +šiyy=əl +al +ustol
glass( m ) stick. res . m =3 m on table( m )
‘The glass got stuck to the table.’

82. lose (game) ( +makrəm ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
+Ašur +mukrəm-lə ka axun-u
pn lose. pst - ls .3 m to brother( m )- p .3 m
‘Ashur lost to his brother.’

83. be glad ( xadə ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_bi
X: SBJ
Y: bi
Locus: Y
brata xdi-la bi ctava
girl( f ) rejoice. pst - ls .3 f with letter( m )
‘The girl was glad about the letter.’

84. speak ( hamzəm ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
+avvo sava hamzum=əl mən brat-u
dem 3. m old. m speak. prog =3 m from girl( f )- p .3 m
‘This oldman is speaking with a girl.’
Note: Some speakers use preposition am.

85. give birth ( barə ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
xat-i bri-la bruna
sister( f )- p .1 sg create. pst - ls .3 f son( m )
‘My sister gave birth to a son.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

86. drop ( manpəl ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
baxt-u munpəl-la stacan
woman( f )- p .3 m drop. pst - ls .3 f glass( m )
‘The woman dropped the glass.’

87. govern ( avə +gura ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_BARE
X: SBJ
Y: BARE
Locus: Y
+avvo naša +gur=ət mat=əl
dem 3. m person( m ) big= rel village( f )=3 m
‘This man runs our village.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker. Non-verbal predicate, avə is 'to be'.

88. miss ( maxnə ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_bar
X: SBJ
Y: bar
Locus: Y
urza maxnuy=əl +bar baxt-u
man( m ) miss. prog =3 m after woman( f )- p .3 m
‘This man misses his wife.’

89. follow ( azəl ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_bar
X: SBJ
Y: bar
Locus: Y
ayya baxta bəšš=əla +bar +gor-o
dem 2. f woman( f ) go. prog =3 f after man( m )- p .3 f
‘This woman follows her husband.’

90. dismount ( +salə ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
+avvo naša +sli-lə mən suysa
dem 3. m person( m ) descend. pst - ls .3 m from horse( m )
‘This man got down from the horse.’

91. listen ( +šammə ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brat-i +bəšmay=əla praskala
girl( f )- p .1 sg hear. prog =3 f radio(?)
‘My daughter is listening to radio.’

92. obey ( +šammə ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
yala +bəšmay=əl ka +rabit-u
boy( m ) hear. prog =3 m to teacher( f )- p .3 m
‘This boy obeys his mother.’

93. hear ( +šammə ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
+xor-i +bəšmay=əl zmarta
friend( m )- p .1 sg hear. prog =3 m song( f )
‘My friend hears the song.’

94. mix ( +xavəṭ ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_bi
X: SBJ
Y: bi
Locus: Y
duyša +xvəṭ-lə bi +xalva
honey( m ) mix. pst - ls .3 m with milk( m )
‘The honey got mixed with the milk.’
Note: Some speakers use preposition am.

95. look ( gašək ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_al
X: SBJ
Y: al
Locus: Y
yala gašuk=əl +al +ayvə cumə
boy( m ) observe. prog =3 m on cloud( f ). pl black. pl
‘The boy is looking at the clouds.’

96. take off ( šaləx ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brata kam-šalx-a-la +oym-o
girl( f ) prf -undress. prs - ss .3 f - ls .3 f dress( f )- p .3 f
‘The girl took off her dress.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

97. dream (sleeping) ( xazə bi xulma ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
+avvo yala bi xulm-u xəzy-a-l baxt-u
dem 3. m boy( m ) with dream( m )- p .3 m see. pst - ss .3 f - ls .3 m woman( f )- p .3 m
‘This guy dreams about his wife.’

98. agree ( avə +razi ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
+gor-o +razi vi-lə mən baxta
man( m )- p .3 f willing be. pst - ls .3 m from woman( f )
‘Lit. ‘Her husband agreed with the woman.’’
Note: Non-verbal predicate, avə is 'to be'. Some speakers use preposition am.

99. have a quarrel ( +makrəs ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
naša +mukrəss=əl mən baxt-u
person( m ) quarrel. res . m =3 m from woman( f )- p .3 m
‘This man had a quarrel with his wife.’
Note: Some speakers use preposition am.

100. cost ( +dakər ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
+sudra +dakr-a əmma +manət
shirt( f ) cost. prs - ss .3 f hundred rouble( m )
‘This shirt costs one hundred roubles.’

101. shoot at ( čarət ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_gu
X: SBJ
Y: gu
Locus: Y
sava črət-lə gu səprita
old. m fire. pst - ls .3 m in birdie( f )
‘The oldman shot at the bird.’

102. pour ( darə ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
baxta dri-la šacar gu mana
woman( f ) pour. pst - ls .3 f sugar( m ) in vessel( m )
‘The woman poured the sugar into the cup.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

103. lose ( talək ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brata kdilə tulk-e-la
girl( f ) key( m ). pl lose. pst - ss ( o ).3 pl - ls .3 f
‘The girl lost her keys.’

104. sink ( +ṭabbə ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_gu
X: SBJ
Y: gu
Locus: Y
kesa +ṭbi-l gu miyya
wood( m ) sink. pst - ls .3 m in water( pl )
‘The log sank in water.’

105. kill ( +kaṭəl ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
švava švot-u +kṭil-a-l
neighbour( m ) neighbour( f )- p .3 m kill. pst - ss .3 f - ls .3 m
‘The neighbor (he) killed his neighbor (her).’

106. hit ( maxə ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
baxta məxy-a-la švot-o
woman( f ) beat. pst - ss .3 f - ls .3 f neighbour( f )- p .3 f
‘The woman hit her neighbor.’

107. kiss ( našək ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
yala nšik-a-l brata
boy( m ) kiss- ss .3 f - ls .3 m girl( f )
‘The boy kissed the girl.’

108. read ( +karə ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brata +kri-la +spay ctava
girl( f ) read. pst - ls .3 f good book( m )
‘The girl read a good book.’

109. move (bodypart) ( maǧvəǧ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brata muǧviǧ-é-la +suṗṗat-o
girl( f ) move(tr). pst - ss ( o ).3 pl - ls .3 f finger( f ). pl - p .3 f
‘The girl moved her finger.’

110. respect ( maɣɣəb ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
+Ašur maɣɣub-u=l švav-u
pn like. prog - p .3 m =3 m neighbour( m )- p .3 m
‘Ashur respects his neighbor.’

111. be squeamish ( gangəz ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
xat-i di ganguz=əla mən šəxtanə manə čamčə
sister( f )- p .1 sg obl . pron .1 sg loathe. prog =3 f from dirty. pl vessel( m ). pl spoon( m ). pl
‘My sister is squeamish about dirty dishes.’

112. be content ( avə +razi ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_bi
X: SBJ
Y: bi
Locus: Y
+Ašur +razi=lə bi brun-u
pn willing=3 m with son( m )- p .3 m
‘Ashur is content with his son.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate, avə is 'to be'.

113. fall in love ( xoš atə ):

Valency pattern: BARE_men
X: BARE
Y: men
Locus: XY
+Ašur xoš-u bitay=əla mən švot-u
pn happiness( f )- p .3 m come. prog =3 f from neighbour( f )- p .3 m
‘Ashur fell in love with his neighbor.’

114. trust ( avə +ərxay ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_bi
X: SBJ
Y: bi
Locus: Y
+avvo naša +ərxay=ələ bi baxt-u
dem 3. m person( m ) secure=3 m with woman( f )- p .3 m
‘This man trusts his wife.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate, avə is 'to be'. +ərxay is a dialect realization of +arxayən.

115. sympathise ( +xṭita atə ):

Valency pattern: BARE_BARE
X: BARE
Y: BARE
Locus: XY
aha naša +xṭit=ət yəmm-u bitay=əla
dem 1. sg person( m ) sin( f )= rel mother( f )- p .3 m come. prog =3 f
‘This man sympathizes with his mother.’

116. envy ( baxxəl ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_bi
X: SBJ
Y: bi
Locus: Y
+Ašur baxxul=əl bi švav-u
pn envy. prog =3 m with neighbour( m )- p .3 m
‘Ashur envies his neighbor.’

117. be angry ( carəb ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_al
X: SBJ
Y: al
Locus: Y
+Ašur bəcrab=əl +al baxt-u
pn be_angry. prog =3 m on woman( f )- p .3 m
‘Ashur is angry with his wife.’

118. be surprised ( +aǧǧəb ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_bi
X: SBJ
Y: bi
Locus: Y
ana +uǧǧəb-li b d-a pəštəš
i be_surprised. pst - ls .1 sg with obl - dem 1. sg gift( f )
‘I was surprised at this gift.’
Note: pəštaš is a dialect realization of pašcaš or pəšcaš.

119. love (tea) ( xoš atə ):

Valency pattern: BARE_men
X: BARE
Y: men
Locus: XY
ayyé baxta xoš-o bitay=əla mən +čay
dem 3. f woman( f ) happiness( f )- p .3 f come. prog =3 f from tea( m )
‘This woman loves tea.’

120. enjoy ( avəd ceyp ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_bi
X: SBJ
Y: bi
Locus: Y
yala vad=ələ ceyp-u bi +čay
boy( m ) do. prog =3 m pleasure( f )- p .3 m with tea( m )
‘The boy enjoys tea.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker. ceyp is a dialect realization of cep.

121. want ( +bayyə ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brata +byay=əla taza telefon
girl( f ) want. prog =3 f new phone(?)
‘The girl wants a new phone.’

122. have a grudge ( carəb ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_al
X: SBJ
Y: al
Locus: Y
+Ašur bəcrab=əl +al baxt-u
pn be_angry. prog =3 m on woman( f )- p .3 m
‘Ashur has a grudge against his wife.’

123. take offence ( ceyp payəš ):

Valency pattern: BARE_men
X: BARE
Y: men
Locus: XY
axun-i ceyp-u pəšta=əla mən baxt-u
brother( m )- p .1 sg pleasure( f )- p .3 m remain. res . f =3 f from woman( f )- p .3 m
‘My brother got cross with his wife.’
Note: ceyp is a dialect realization of cep.

124. upset ( mapyəš ləbba ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_BARE
X: SBJ
Y: BARE
Locus: Y
a naša +raba ləbb=ət baxt-u muppəš-lə
dem 1. sg person( m ) many heart( m )= rel woman( f )- p .3 m leave. pst - ls .3 m
‘This man greatly upset his wife.’

125. marvel ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

126. despise ( +aynə +paləṭ ):

Valency pattern: BARE_men
X: BARE
Y: men
Locus: XY
+Ašur +ayn-u +plaṭ=əna mən švav-u
pn eye( f ). pl - p .3 m leave. prog =3 pl from neighbour( m )- p .3 m
‘Ashur despises his neighbor.’

127. get upset ( ləbba mapyəš ):

Valency pattern: BARE_men
X: BARE
Y: men
Locus: XY
ləbb=ət +Ašur muppəš-lə mən brun-u
heart( m )= rel pn leave. pst - ls .3 m from son( m )- p .3 m
‘Ashur got upset with his son.’

128. get irritated ( ləbba +sarəx ):

Valency pattern: BARE_men
X: BARE
Y: men
Locus: XY
ləbb=ət sava +srəx-lə mən navəgta
heart( m )= rel old. m be_mad. pst - ls .3 m from granddaughter( f )
‘The oldman is irritated with his daughter.’

129. be fond ( +avər gu ləbba ):

Valency pattern: BARE_SBJ
X: BARE
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
a naša +raba gu ləbb-i +vir=əl
dem 1. sg person( m ) very in heart( m )- p .1 sg enter. res . m =3 m
‘I am fond of this person.’

130. be shy ( naxəp ):

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
+avvo yala bənxap=əl mən d-a kom-u
dem 3. m boy( m ) be_ashamed. prog =3 m from obl - dem 1. sg size( m )- p .3 m
‘This boy is shy about his height.’