BivalTyp

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Zilo Andi

Contributed by Neige Rochant (Academia.edu profile)

N.R.'s photo

The data were gathered in 2018-2019 in Zilo, Dagestan, Russia. The Russian version of the questionnaire was used for elicitation.

How to cite

Rochant, Neige. . Bivalent patterns in Zilo Andi. In: Say, Sergey (ed.). BivalTyp: Typological database of bivalent verbs and their encoding frames. St. Petersburg: Institute for Linguistic Studies, RAS. (Data first published on August 4, 2020; last revised on November 15, 2020.) (Available online at https://www.bivaltyp.info, Accessed on )

Basic info

Grammar notes

Basic clause structure and the transitive construction

Case marking displays the ergative-absolutive alignment. In the basic transitive construction, the A-argument is in the ergative, and the P-argument, in the (unmarked) nominative (which can also be referred to as absolutive). Nouns are classified into 5 genders, or noun classes. The gender of the nominative argument can be indexed on the verb by a prefix or infix; other arguments are never indexed. Whether or not the nominative argument is indexed is the lexical property of the verb, independent of its transitivity. The number of the nominative argument is sometimes expressed by verb stem alternations. Transitive clauses with and without gender indexing can be found in (1) and (2).

(1) ali-di ɡurdo             r-uχ.i  
    PN-ERG shirt[INAN2][NOM] INAN2-take_off.PST(AOR)  
    “Ali took off his shirt.”

(2) ali-di intʃi             k’amm.i  
    PN-ERG apple[INAN1][NOM] eat.PST(AOR)  
    “Ali ate an apple.”

Non-core arguments are flagged by oblique case markers.

Case system

There are 21 cases (including locative cases that express both localization and direction).

Verb lemmas

Verbs are cited in the inflectional form which is used in the translation of the stimulus sentence, with morpheme boundaries shown. Gender indexes, if present, are shown in angle brackets, e.g. ‘to take off’ is shown as <r>-uχ.i = [INAN2-take_off.PST(AOR)].

Glossing abbreviations

ABST — abstract noun; ADD — additive; AFF — affective; AN — animate; AOR — aorist; ATTR — attributive; CARD — cardinal; CAUS — causative; COM — comitative; CONT — contessive; COP — copula; DAT — dative; DEM — demonstrative; EL — elative; EMPH — emphatic; ERG — ergative; F — feminine; FCT — factive; GEN — genitive; HAB — habitual; ILLAT — illative; IN — inessive; INAN1, INAN2 — 1st, 2nd inanimate; INCH — inchoative; INST — instrumental; INTER — interessive; LAT — lative; LL — lower level (for demonstratives); M — masculine; MSD — masdar; NOM — nominative; NPST — non-past; OBL — oblique; PF — perfective; PL — plural; PN — person name; PROG — progressive; PRS — present; PST — past; PTCP — participle; RFL — reflexive; SL — lower level (for demonstratives); SUPER — superessive.

Data

Subset examples by valency pattern
Subset examples by locus

1. feel pain ( ruqχ’.u ):

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ali-r mijar ruqχ’.u-r
pn . obl - inan 2( gen ) head[ inan 2][ nom ] ache. pst - prog
‘Ali has a headache.’

2. have (illness) ( ruqχ’udo ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
ali ruqχ’udo honqχisːol=loj
pn [ m ][ nom ] being_ill influenza= com
‘Ali has the flu.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

3. be afraid ( sːir.i ):

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
ali χʷe-tʃ’u sːir.i-r
pn [ m ][ nom ] dog. obl - cont fear. pst - prog
‘Ali fears the dog.’

4. throw ( ʃamm.i ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di hints’o ʃamm.i
pn - erg stone[ inan 1][ nom ] throw. pst ( aor )
‘Ali threw a stone.’

5. have enough ( <b>-iʔ.u-mallo ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ali-ɬu orsi b-iʔ.u-mallo
pn - dat money[ inan 1][ nom ] inan 1-be_enough. pst - prog
‘Ali has enough money.’

6. resemble ( a<w>ɬin ):

Valency pattern: NOM_AFF
X: NOM
Y: AFF
Locus: Y
ali a<w>ɬin muħammadi-<w>o
pn [ m ][ nom ] resemblant< m > pn - aff < m >
‘Ali resembles Muhammad.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

7. believe ( buʒ.u ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
ali buʒ.u-r marjam-ʔo
pn [ m ][ nom ] believe. pst - prog pn - super . lat
‘Ali believes Mariam.’

8. take ( <r>-iχ.i ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di χutʃa r-iχ.i
pn - erg book[ inan 2][ nom ] inan 2-take. pst ( aor )
‘Ali took a book.’

9. see ( haʔ.o ):

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pat’imati-<b>o haʔ.o-r milki
pn - aff < inan 1> see. pst - prog house[ inan 1][ nom ]
‘Patimat sees a house.’

10. influence ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
zaman b-uʔonn.i-r-qχi pamjat b-itʃ’.o-r
time inan 1-go. pst - msd - inst memory inan 1-die. pst - prog
‘With time passing, memory dies.’
Note: Not included in the dataset because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

11. encounter ( badi <w>-ukː.u ):

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ali-<w>o badi aliħadʒi w-ukː.u
pn - aff < m > forth pn [ m ][ nom ] m -fall. pst ( aor )
‘Ali met Aligaji’

12. enter ( kab.i ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ILLAT
X: NOM
Y: ILLAT
Locus: Y
ali haqχ’u-di kab.i
pn [ m ][ nom ] room- illat enter. pst ( aor )
‘Ali entered the room.’

13. win ( <w>-uʃ.a ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
ali w-uʃ.a ʃaχmata-tɬo umarħadʒi-ʔo
pn [ m ][ nom ] m -win. pst ( aor ) chess-? pn - super . lat
‘Ali won over Umargaji at chess.’

14. go out ( <w>-uʔ.on ):

Valency pattern: NOM_IN.EL
X: NOM
Y: IN.EL
Locus: Y
ali w-uʔ.on iʃu-kːu
pn [ m ][ nom ] m -go. pst ( aor ) home. in - el
‘Ali went out of the house.’

15. drive ( <b>-uqχ’.i-r ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di ziw̃ b-uqχ’.i-r alaχil-ʔo
pn - erg cow[ an ][ nom ] an -displace. pst - prog pasture- super . lat
‘Ali drives the cow to the pasture.’

16. bend ( tʃ’ab-oɬ.i ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pat’imati-di anɡa tʃ’ab-oɬ.i
pn - erg branch[ inan 1][ nom ] bend- caus . pst ( aor )
‘Patimat bent the branch.’

17. tell ( rutɬ.i: ):

Valency pattern: ERG_INST
X: ERG
Y: INST
Locus: Y
ali-di umarħadʒi-qχi rutɬ.i: “…”
pn - erg pn - inst say. pst ( aor )
‘Ali said to Umargaji: “…”’

18. hold ( 0 ):

Valency pattern: CONT_NOM
X: CONT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ali-tʃ’u kodu χutʃa
pn - cont hands. in book[ inan 2][ nom ]
‘Ali is holding a book.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

19. catch up ( <w>-eχudu <w>-oqχ.o-j ):

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
ali muħammadi-tʃ’u w-eχudu w-oqχ.o-j
pn [ m ][ nom ] pn - cont m -after m -reach. pst - pf
‘Ali caught up with Muhammad.’

20. milk ( <b>-ertʃ’.u ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pat’imati-di b-ertʃ’.u ziw̃
pn - erg an -milk. pst ( aor ) cow[ an ][ nom ]
‘Patimat milked the cow.’

21. reach ( <w>-oqχ.o ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
ali rahal-ʔo w-oqχ.o
pn [ m ][ nom ] bank. obl - super . lat m -reach. pst ( aor )
‘Ali reached the river bank.’

22. touch ( reʔa ob.i ):

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
ali-di reʔa ob.i qχ’enno-ʔa
pn - erg hand[ inan 2][ nom ] touch. pst ( aor ) wall. obl - super
‘Ali touched the wall.’

23. fight ( <w>-aχː.o-j ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
ali aħmadi=lojɡu w-aχː.o-j
pn [ m ][ nom ] pn = com m -fight. pst - pf
‘Ali and Ahmad are fighting.’

24. be friends ( homoloʁi-ɬir-ʔa ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
ali homoloʁi-ɬir-ʔa qχ’urban=noj
pn [ m ][ nom ] friend- abst - super pn = com
‘Ali is friends with Qurban.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

25. think ( urʁ.u-mallo ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
ali urʁ.u-mallo umarħadʒi-ʔo
pn [ m ][ nom ] think. pst - prog pn - super . lat
‘Ali is thinking about Umargaji.’

26. eat ( k’amm.i ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di intʃi k’amm.i
pn - erg apple[ inan 1][ nom ] eat. pst ( aor )
‘Ali ate an apple.’

27. fry ( <b>-eʒ.a ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pat’imati-di b-eʒ.a χʷammi
pn - erg inan 1-brown. pst ( aor ) fish[ inan 1][ nom ]
‘Patimat fried a fish.’

28. wait ( tʃ’on ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
pat’imati marjam-ʔo tʃ’on
pn [ f ][ nom ] pn [ f ]- super . lat stand_waiting. pst ( aor )
‘Patimat is waiting for Mariam.’

29. forget ( retʃː.o-j ):

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ali-<b>o se-b=lo miqχ’i retʃː.o-j
pn - aff < inan 1> one- inan 1= add road[ inan 1][ nom ] forget. pst - pf
‘Ali forgot about the other road.’

30. depend ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
aqχ’ulo r-uʔ.inn-ija w-oχːor-ɬir-qχi
knowledge inan 2-go. npst - fut m -old- abst - inst
‘Memory goes away with age.’
Note: Not included in the dataset because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

31. call ( qχ’or.i ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pat’imati-di muħammad qχ’or.i
pn - erg pn [ m ][ nom ] call. pst ( aor )
‘Patimat called Muhammad.’

32. get to know ( ts’inn.i j-iʁ.i ):

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pat’imati-<j>o sːobɡu ts’inn.i j-iʁ.i marjam
pn - aff < f > a_year_ago know. pst ( aor ) f -stop. pst ( aor ) pn [ f ][ nom ]
‘Patimat met Mariam a year ago.’

33. know ( ts’inn-e ):

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ali-<j>o ts’inn-e marjam
pn - aff < f > know- hab pn [ f ][ nom ]
‘Ali knows Mariam.’

34. play (instrument) ( qχʷar.i-r ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pat’imati-di pandur qχʷar.i-r
pn - erg guitar[ inan 1][ nom ] play. pst - prog
‘Patimat is playing the guitar.’

35. avoid ( <w>-utʃ’.u-mado ):

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT.EL
X: NOM
Y: CONT.EL
Locus: Y
ali muħammadi-tʃ’u-kːu w-utʃ’.u-mado
pn [ m ][ nom ] pn - cont - el m -avoid. pst - prog
‘Ali is avoiding Muhammad.’

36. make ( dʒid.i ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di bomba dʒid.i
pn - erg bomb[ inan 1][ nom ] make. pst ( aor )
‘Ali made a bomb.’

37. make fun ( <j>-eɬː-o ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
pat’imati muħammadi-ʔa j-eɬː-o
pn [ f ][ nom ] pn - super f -laugh- hab
‘Patimat is laughing at Muhammad.’

38. have ( dʒi ):

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ali-b dʒi maʃina
pn - inan 1( gen ) cop car[ inan 1][ nom ]
‘Ali has a car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

39. look for ( kusd.i-r ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pat’imati-di kusd.i-r rek’ulol
pn - erg search. pst - prog key[ inan 2]. pl [ nom ]
‘Patimat is looking for the keys.’

40. paint ( buʃ.o ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di qχen buʃ.o
pn - erg wall[ inan 1][ nom ] smear. pst ( aor )
‘Ali painted the wall.’

41. bite ( qχ’amm.i-j ):

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
χʷedo-di qχ’amm.i-j pat’imati-ʔa
dog. obl - erg bite. pst - pf pn - super
‘The dog bit Patimat.’

42. forfeit ( <w>-at’a-ɬ.i-j ):

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT.EL
X: NOM
Y: CONT.EL
Locus: Y
ali milki-tʃ’u-kːu w-at’a-ɬ.i-j
pn [ m ][ nom ] house- cont - el m -separate- inch . pst - pf
‘Ali lost his house.’

43. try to catch ( <b>-itʃː.i-r ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di ɡedu b-itʃː.i-r
pn - erg cat[ an ][ nom ] an -catch. pst - prog
‘Ali is catching the cat.’

44. break ( <r>-iqχ-onɬ.i ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di ts’ur r-iqχ-onɬ.i
pn - erg stick[ inan 2][ nom ] inan 2-break- caus . pst ( aor )
‘Ali broke the stick.’

45. flatter ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
pat’imati-di marjam j-etsːiqχ-o
pn - erg pn [ f ][ nom ] f -praise- hab
‘Patimat praises Mariam.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

46. love (person) ( dʒiʔ.i-r ):

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pat’imati-<j>o dʒiʔ.i-r marjam
pn - aff < f > like. pst - prog pn [ f ][ nom ]
‘Patimat likes Mariam.’

47. wave ( xʷaʔi-la ):

Valency pattern: NOM_INST
X: NOM
Y: INST
Locus: Y
pat’imati k’azil-qχi xʷaʔi-la
pn [ f ][ nom ] shawl. obl - inst wave- prs
‘Patimat is waving her shawl.’

48. dream ( aniʃːi ):

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ali-b aniʃːi ts’ːiw maʃina
pn - inan 1( gen ) dream[ inan 1][ nom ] new car[ inan 1][ nom ]
‘Ali dreams of a new car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

49. wash ( a<r>tʃ.o-j ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pat’imati-di a<r>tʃ.o-j tʃinɡil
pn - erg wash< inan 2>. pst - pf cup[ inan 2][ nom ]
‘Patimat washed the cup.’

50. put on ( ritɬ’.inn-ij ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di ritɬ’.inn-ij ortʃoɡi
pn - erg put_on. pst - pf trousers[ inan 1][ nom ]
‘Ali put on trousers.’

51. be called ( ts’er ):

Valency pattern: SUPER.LAT_NOM
X: SUPER.LAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
he-b dan-ʔo ts’er qχ’ilba
dem - inan 1 thing[ inan 1]- super . lat name[ inan 2][ nom ] compass
‘This thing is called a compass.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

52. punish ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

53. attack ( ɬib.i-j hiʔo ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
sej ɬib.i-j hiʔo χʷammi b-itʃː.i-r-sːi hek’ʷaʃ-ʔo
bear[ an ][ nom ] jump. pst - pf up. lat fish[ an ][ nom ] an -catch. pst - prog - atr person. obl - super . lat
‘The bear attacked the fisherman.’

54. fill (intr) ( <b>-its’.i-j ):

Valency pattern: NOM_ERG
X: NOM
Y: ERG
Locus: Y
vedra ɬen-di b-its’.i-j
bucket[ inan 1][ nom ] water- erg inan 1-fill. pst - pf
‘The bucket has filled up with water.’

55. find ( r-osː.onn-ij ):

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pat’imati-<r>o r-osː.onn-ij rek’ulol
pn - aff < inan 2> inan 2- pl \find. pst - pf keys[ inan 2]. pl [ nom ]
‘Patimat has found the keys.’

56. be short ( b-iʔ.u-mado- + NEG ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ali-ɬu sːe-b som b-iʔ.u-mado-sːu
pn - dat one- inan 1 rouble inan 1-be_enough. pst - prog - neg
‘Ali is missing one rouble.’

57. hate ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
pat’imati-<j>o dʒiʔ.i-r-sːu marjam
pn - aff < f > like. pst - prog - neg pn [ f ][ nom ]
‘Patimat doesn’t like Mariam.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

58. like ( dʒiʔ.i-j ):

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pat’imati-<r>o dʒiʔ.i-j ɡurdo
pn - aff < inan 2> like. pst - pf shirt[ inan 2][ nom ]
‘Patimat likes [this] shirt.’

59. need ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ali-ɬu orsi qχ’oroqχ’.o-j
pn - dat money want. pst - pf
‘Ali wants/needs money.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

60. surround ( hinni <b>-iʃ-oɬ.i-j ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
qχ’enada-di hinni b-iʃ-oɬ.i-j ʃahar
wall. pl . obl - erg inside. lat inan 1-return- caus . pst - pf town[ inan 1][ nom ]
‘The walls surround the town.’

61. remain ( <b>-ekː.u-j ):

Valency pattern: CONT_NOM
X: CONT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ali-tʃ’u hots’o-ɡu som b-ekː.u-j
pn - cont ten- card rouble[ inan 1][ nom ] inan 1-stay. pst - pf
‘Ali has ten roubles left.’

62. answer ( dʒawab itʃː.i ):

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ali-di utʃitelʃːu-j dʒawab itʃː.i
pn - erg teacher. obl - dat answer[ inan 1][ nom ] give. pst ( aor )
‘Ali answered the teacher.’

63. open ( arχ.onn-ij ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pat’imati-di arχ.onn-ij banka
pn - erg open. pst - pf tin[ inan 1][ nom ]
‘Patimat opened the tin.’

64. be different ( bat’a ):

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
di-r ɡurdo du-r-tʃ’u bat’a
i . obl - inan 2( gen ) shirt[ inan 2][ nom ] thou. obl - inan 2( gen )- cont separate
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

65. fall behind ( <j>-eχːudu <j>-ekː.u-j ):

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
pat’imati marjam-tʃ’u j-eχːudu j-ekː.u-j
pn [ f ][ nom ] pn - cont f -after f -stay. pst - pf
‘Patimat fell behind Mariam.’

66. plough ( <b>-eqχ’.i-r ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di b-eqχ’.i-r χur
pn - erg inan 1-plough. pst - prog field[ inan 1][ nom ]
‘Ali is ploughing the field.’

67. smell ( ʃan (<b>-aχ-o) ):

Valency pattern: CONT.EL_GEN
X: CONT.EL
Y: GEN
Locus: XY
di-r-ul reʔoba-tʃ’u-kːu benzinu-tɬi zolo ʃan (b-aχ.o)
i . obl - inan 2( gen )- pl hand. pl . obl - cont - el benzine. obl - gen very odour[ inan 1][ nom ] inan 1-end_up. pst ( aor )
‘My hands smell of benzine very strongly.’

68. cross ( <b>-uqχ’-i ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di miqχ’i b-uqχ’-i
pn - erg road[ inan 1][ nom ] inan 1-displace. pst ( aor )
‘Ali crossed the road.’

69. sing ( qχ’or.i-j ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pat’imati-di qχ’or.i-j baʁu ketʃ’i
pn - erg call. pst - pf beautiful song[ inan 1][ nom ]
‘Patimat sang a beautifl song.’

70. write ( qχʷar.i-j ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pat’imati-di qχʷar.i-j kaʁar
pn - erg write. pst - pf letter[ inan 1][ nom ]
‘Patimat has written a letter.’

71. drink ( ts’ad.i ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di ʃiw̃ ts’ad.i
pn - erg milk[ inan 2][ nom ] drink. pst ( aor )
‘Ali has drunk the milk.’

72. melt ( <b>-uts’-oɬ.i ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di b-uts’-oɬ.i t’uʃi
pn - erg inan 1-melt- caus . pst ( aor ) lead
‘Ali has melted some lead.’

73. match ( roqχ’.i-r ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
hene-r rotɬ’utʃ’ur di-r gurdo-ʔa roqχ’.i-r
dem - inan 2 belt[ inan 2][ nom ] i . obl - inan 2( gen ) shirt- super match. pst - prog
‘This belt fits my dress.’

74. leave ( <w>-uʔ.onn-ij ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.EL
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.EL
Locus: Y
ali w-uʔ.onn-ij hon-ʔa-kːu
pn [ m ][ nom ] m -go. pst - pf village- super - el
‘Ali left the village.’

75. cover ( riʃd.i-r ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
t’amsu-di riʃd.i-r itɬuɡu hoʔor
carpet. obl - erg lock. pst - prog all floor[ inan 1][ nom ]
‘The carpet covers the whole floor.’

76. remember ( rok’or-ʔa <r>-iʁ.i ):

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pat’imati-<r>o haqχ’u ʃu-r rok’or-ʔa r-iʁ.i
pn - aff < inan 2> house[ inan 2][ nom ] good- inan 2 heart- super inan 2-stop. pst ( aor )
‘Patimat remembers the house well.’

77. help ( kumeki dʒid.i ):

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
pat’imati-di marjamu-ɬu kumeki dʒid.i
pn - erg pn . obl - dat help[ inan 1][ nom ] make. pst ( aor )
‘Patimat helped Mariam.’

78. understand (language) ( batʃ’ː.u-mado ):

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
he-ge-ʃːu-<b>o b-atʃ’ː.u-mado hin-gi-b-ul roʃol
dem - ll - obl - aff < inan 1> inan 1- pl \understand. pst - prog dem - ll - inan 1- pl [ nom ] word[ inan 1]. pl [ nom ]
‘He understands these words.’

79. hit (target) ( <b>-aχ.o-j ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
piri b-aχ.o-j reʃu-ʔa
lightning[ inan 1][ nom ] inan 1-end_up. pst - pf wood- super
‘The lightning fell on the tree.’

80. cut oneself ( <b>-uqχ’.i-j ):

Valency pattern: ERG_INST
X: ERG
Y: INST
Locus: Y
ali-di b-uqχ’.i-j besuno-qχi
pn - erg inan 1-displace. pst - pf knife. obl - inst
‘Ali cut himself with a knife.’

81. get stuck ( <b>-ats’.i ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
stakan ustulu-ʔa b-ats’.i
glass[ inan 1][ nom ] table. obl - super inan 1-stick. pst ( aor )
‘The glass got stuck to the table.’

82. lose (game) ( <w>-uʁ.an ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
ali muħammadi-ʔo w-uʁ.an
pn [ m ][ nom ] pn - super . lat m -lose. pst ( aor )
‘Ali lost to Muhammad.’

83. be glad ( <j>-erh.ann-ij ):

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT.EL
X: NOM
Y: CONT.EL
Locus: Y
pat’imati pismo-tʃ’u-kːu j-erh.ann-ij
pn [ f ][ nom ] letter- cont - el f -rejoice. pst - pf
‘Patimat rejoiced over the letter.’

84. speak ( j-edːo-mado ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
pat’imati marjam=lojɡu j-edːo-mado
pn [ f ][ nom ] pn = com f -talk. pst - prog
‘Patimat is talking with Mariam.’

85. give birth ( dʒid.i ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
marjam-di woʃo dʒid.i
pn - erg boy[ m ][ nom ] make. pst ( aor )
‘Mariam gave birth to a boy.’

86. drop ( <r>-ukː-oɬ.i ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pat’imati-di r-ukː-oɬ.i istakan
pn - erg inan 2-fall- caus . pst ( aor ) glass[ inan 2][ nom ]
‘Patimat dropped a glass.’

87. govern ( <w>-etʃ’uχa ):

Valency pattern: NOM_INTER
X: NOM
Y: INTER
Locus: Y
ali hon-tɬi w-etʃ’uχa
pn [ m ][ nom ] village- inter m -big
‘Ali leads our village.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

88. miss ( haluχ.onn-ij ):

Valency pattern: NOM_INST
X: NOM
Y: INST
Locus: Y
marjam haluχ.onn-ij pat’imati-qχi
pn [ f ][ nom ] miss. pst - pf pn - inst
‘Mariam misses Patimat.’

89. follow ( <w>-eχːudu <w>-uʔ.inn-e ):

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
ali muħammadi-tʃ’u w-eχːudu w-uʔ.inn-e
pn [ m ][ nom ] pn - cont m -after m -go. npst - hab
‘Ali is going after/following Muhammad.’

90. dismount ( <w>-utɬ.i hitɬ’u ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.EL
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.EL
Locus: Y
ali w-utɬ.i k’otu-ʔa-kːu hitɬ’u
pn [ m ][ nom ] m -come_down. pst ( aor ) horse- super - el down
‘Ali got off the horse.’

91. listen ( antʃː.i-r ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
pat’imat radiul-ʔo antʃː.i-r
pn [ f ][ nom ] radio- super . lat listen. pst - prog
‘Patimat is listening to the radio.’

92. obey ( antʃː.i ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
ali baba-ʔo antʃː.i
pn [ m ][ nom ] mother- super . lat listen. pst ( aor )
‘Ali obeys his mother.’

93. hear ( anɬ.i-r ):

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ali-<b>o anɬ.i-r ketʃ’ibaqχ’an
pn - aff < inan 1> hear. pst - prog song+melody[ inan 1][ nom ]
‘Ali hears the music.’

94. mix ( a<r>ʒ.a-j ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
hunts’ːi ʃiw̃=lojɡu itɬu a<r>ʒ.a-j
honey[ inan 2][ nom ] milk= com all mix< inan 2>. pst - pf
‘The honey has blended with the milk.’

95. look ( haltʃ’.o-mado ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
pat’imat hiroda-ʔo haltʃ’.o-mado
pn [ f ][ nom ] cloud. pl . obl - super . lat look. pst - prog
‘Patimat is looking at the clouds.’

96. take off ( <r>-uχ.i ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di ɡurdo r-uχ.i
pn - erg shirt[ inan 2][ nom ] inan 2-take_off. pst ( aor )
‘Ali took off his shirt.’

97. dream (sleeping) ( motɬ’i-tɬi ha-ʔ.o-r ):

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pat’imati-<j>o motɬ’i-tɬi haʔ.o-r marjam
pn - aff < f > dream- inter see. pst - prog pn [ f ][ nom ]
‘Patimat dreams of Mariam.’

98. agree ( razi ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
ali marjam-ʔa razi
pn [ m ][ nom ] pn - super contented
‘Ali agrees with Mariam.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

99. have a quarrel ( <j>-iχ.on ):

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
pat’imati j-iχ.on marjam=lojɡu
pn [ f ][ nom ] f -be_offended. pst ( aor ) m ariam= com
‘Patimat quareled with Mariam.’

100. cost ( baha ):

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ho-no-b kuruʃku-tɬi baha oziru-ɡu som
dem - emph - inan 1 cup. obl - gen price[ inan 1][ nom ] thousand- card rouble
‘This cup costs a thousand roubles.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

101. shoot at ( qχ’ʷaʁ.unn ):

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER.LAT
X: ERG
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
ali-di ʃːekibo-ʔo qχ’ʷaʁ.unn-ij
pn - erg bird. obl - super . lat shoot. pst - pf
‘Ali shot at the bird.’

102. pour ( t’inn.i ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di pisoki t’inn.i
pn - erg sugar[ inan 1][ nom ] pour. pst ( aor )
‘Ali poured the sugar.’

103. lose ( <r>-ot’-oɬ.i ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di r-ot’-oɬ.i rek’ulol
pn - erg inan 2- pl \get_lost- caus . pst ( aor ) key[ inan 2]. pl [ nom ]
‘Ali lost the keys.’

104. sink ( ʁʷanqχ’.unn-ij ):

Valency pattern: NOM_INTER
X: NOM
Y: INTER
Locus: Y
reʃa ɬen-tɬi ʁʷanqχ’.unn-ij
wood[ inan 1][ nom ] water- inter sink. pst - pf
‘The log sank in the water.’

105. kill ( dʒab.i ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di muħammadi dʒab.i
pn - erg pn [ m ][ nom ] beat. pst ( aor )
‘Ali killed Muhammad.’

106. hit ( dʒab.i ):

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
ali-di dʒab.i muħammadi-ʔa
pn - erg beat. pst ( aor ) pn - super
‘Ali hit Muhammad.’

107. kiss ( ts’omm.i ):

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
χadiʒati-di ts’omm.i marjam-ʔa
pn - erg kiss. pst ( aor ) pn - super
‘Khadizhat kissed Mariam.’

108. read ( baʔ.i ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pat’imati-di baʔ.i interesni χutʃa
pn - erg read. pst ( aor ) interesting book[ inan 2][ nom ]
‘Patimat has read an interesting book.’

109. move (bodypart) ( <b>-erʁ-oɬ.i-j ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di ts’ek’a b-erʁ-oɬ.i-j
pn - erg finger[ inan 1][ nom ] inan 1-move- caus . pst - pf
‘Ali moved his finger’

110. respect ( <j>-etʃ’uχa-jd.i-r ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pat’imati-di j-etʃ’uχa-jd.i-r marjam
pn - erg f -big- fct . pst - prog pn [ f ][ nom ]
‘Patimat respects Mariam.’

111. be squeamish ( joʃ.u-mado- + NEG ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
pat’imati hek’u qχ’aj-ʔa joʃ.u-mado-sːu
pn [ f ][ nom ] dirty possessions- super enjoy. pst - prog - neg
‘Patimat is disgusted by the dirty dishes.

112. be content ( razi ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
ali razi enʃːu-w=ɡu woʃu-ʔa
pn [ m ][ nom ] contented rfl . obl . m - m ( gen )= emph boy. obl - super
‘Ali is pleased with his son.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

113. fall in love ( ruqχ’i <b>-ukː.u-j ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
ali rutɬ’i b-ukː.u-j marjam-ʔo
pn [ m ][ nom ] love[ inan 1][ nom ] inan 1-fall. pst - pf pn - super . lat
‘Ali fell in love with Mariam.’

114. trust ( buʒ.u-rado ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
pat’imati buʒ.u-rado marjam-ʔo
pn [ f ][ nom ] believe. pst - prog pn - super . lat
‘Patimat trusts Mariam.’

115. sympathise ( rok’o uzad.i-r ):

Valency pattern: GEN_SUPER.LAT
X: GEN
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: XY
pat’imati-tɬi rok’o uzad.i-r en-tɬi=ɡu baba-ʔo
pn - gen heart[ inan 2][ nom ] pity. pst - prog rfl - gen = emph mother- super . lat
‘Patimat feels sorry for her mother.’

116. envy ( rok’o qχubi-ɬ.i-j ):

Valency pattern: GEN_SUPER
X: GEN
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: XY
muħammadi-r rok’o qχubi-ɬ.i-j ali-ʔa
pn - inan 2( gen ) heart[ inan 2][ nom ] untidy- inch . pst - pf pn - super
‘Muhammad envies Ali.’

117. be angry ( sːim <b>-iʔ.o-j ):

Valency pattern: GEN_SUPER.LAT
X: GEN
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: XY
pat’imati-tɬi sːim b-iʔ.o-j marjam-ʔo
pn - gen anger[ inan 1][ nom ] inan 1-come. pst - pf pn - super . lat
‘Patimat is angry at Mariam.’

118. be surprised ( tamaʃa-ɬ.i ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
pat’imati tamaʃa-ɬ.i he-de-b padarkal-ʔa
pn [ f ][ nom ] amazement- inch . pst ( aor ) dem - sl - inan 1 gift. obl - super
‘Patimat was surprised by this gift.’

119. love (tea) ( dʒiʔ.i-r ):

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pat’imati-<b>o dʒiʔ.i-r tʃaj
pn - aff < inan 1> like. pst - prog tea[ inan 1][ nom ]
‘Patimat likes tea.’

120. enjoy ( t’aʔam <b>-iχ.i-r ):

Valency pattern: ERG_CONT.EL
X: ERG
Y: CONT.EL
Locus: Y
pat’imati-di tʃa-tʃ’u-kːu t’aʔam b-iχ.i-r
pn - erg tea. obl - cont - el taste[ inan 1][ nom ] inan 1-take. pst - prog
‘Patimat is enjoying hot tea.’

121. want ( qχ’oroqχ’.o-j ):

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pat’imati-j qχ’oroqχ’.o-j ts’ːiw telefon
pn - dat want. pst - pf new telephone[ inan 1][ nom ]
‘Patimat wants a new cellphone.’

122. have a grudge ( <j>-iχ.onn-ij ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
pat’imati j-iχ.onn-ij marjam-ʔa
pn [ f ][ nom ] f -be_offended. pst - pf pn - super
‘Patimat is cross with Mariam.’

123. take offence ( <w>-uχ.onn-ij ):

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
muħammad w-uχ.onn-ij ali-ʔa
pn [ m ][ nom ] m -be_offended. pst - pf pn - super
‘Muhammad was offended by Ali.’

124. upset ( waswasil-ʔo <j>-ukː-oɬ.i ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pat’imati-di waswasil-ʔo j-ukː-oɬ.i marjam
pn - erg doubt. obl - super . lat f -fall- caus . pst ( aor ) pn [ f ][ nom ]
‘Patimat upset Mariam.’

125. marvel ( <w>-uχ.i-j ):

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT.EL
X: NOM
Y: CONT.EL
Locus: Y
ali w-uχ.i-j ho-no-b gorodil-tʃ’u-kːu
pn [ m ][ nom ] m -take_off. pst - pf dem - emph - inan 1 city- cont - el
‘Ali was astounded by that city.’

126. despise ( ħaqχ’ir-ijd.i-r ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pat’imati-di ħaqχ’ir-ijd.i-r marjam
pn - erg humiliated- fct . pst - prog pn [ f ][ nom ]
‘Patimat despises Mariam.’

127. get upset ( sːim <b>-iʔ.o-j ):

Valency pattern: GEN_SUPER.LAT
X: GEN
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: XY
ali-b sːim b-iʔ.o-j enʃːu-w=ɡu woʃu-ʔo
pn - inan 1( gen ) anger[ inan 1][ nom ] inan 1-come. pst - pf rfl . obl . m - m ( gen )= emph boy. obl - super . lat
‘Ali was upset by his son.’

128. get irritated ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

129. be fond ( rok’or-di <j>-iχ.i-j ):

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pat’imati-<j>o marjam rok’or-di j-iχ.i-j
pn - aff < f > pn [ f ][ nom ] heart- illat f -take. pst - pf
‘Patimat is fond of Mariam.’

130. be shy ( sːuloʔ.o-rado ):

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT.EL
X: NOM
Y: CONT.EL
Locus: Y
ali sːuloʔ.o-rado enʃːu-b=ɡu wotʃo-ɬir-tʃ’u-kːu
pn [ m ][ nom ] be_embarrassed. pst - prog rfl . obl . m - inan 1( gen )= emph short- abst - cont - el
‘Ali is embarrassed about his height (lit. ‘by his shortness’).’