BivalTyp

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Aghul

Contributed by Timur Maisak (Academia.edu profile) and Solmaz Merdanova

T.M.'s photo S.M.'s photo

Solmaz Merdanova provided the data in 2018 in the capacity of a native speaker of the Huppuq’ (Khpyuk) dialect of Aghul. The Russian version of the questionnaire was used for elicitation.

How to cite

Maisak, Timur & Solmaz Merdanova. . Bivalent patterns in Aghul. In: Say, Sergey (ed.). BivalTyp: Typological database of bivalent verbs and their encoding frames. St. Petersburg: Institute for Linguistic Studies, RAS. (Data first published on September 9, 2020; last revised on November 15, 2020.) (Available online at https://www.bivaltyp.info, Accessed on )

Basic info

Grammar notes

Basic clause structure and the transitive construction

Case marking displays the ergative-absolutive alignment. In the basic transitive construction, the A-argument is in the ergative, and the P-argument, in the (unmarked) absolutive. The ergative form of nouns coincides with the oblique stem found in other cases. There is no head-marking on the verb. The neutral word order is S(O)V. An example of the transitive construction can be found in (1). Note that in the examples from the questionnaire, the absolutive is not marked with a gloss.

(1) aslan.a  k’eǯ   lik’.i-ne  
    PN(ERG)  letter write.PF-AOR 
    “Aslan wrote a/the letter.”

Non-core arguments are flagged by oblique case markers or, rarely, by postpositions (in combination with the genitive case).

Case system

There are 5 non-locative cases: absolutive, ergative, dative, genitive and comitative. The system of locative cases consists of two layers: 7 localizations (IN 'inside (a container)', INTER 'between, in a substance', ANTE 'in front', APUD 'at, near', POST 'behind', SUPER 'on', SUB/CONT 'under, in contact with') and 3 directionals (the unmarked essive, lative and elative), which yields 21 combinations. Locative cases have extended non-locative functions.

Verb lemmas

Verbs are cited by the stem which is used in the specific sentence. For example 'to write' is cited as lik’.i-, the perfective stem used in (1).

Glossing abbreviations

ABS — absolutive (shown in pattern formulas, not shown in the glosses); ABSTR — abstract noun; ADV — adverb; AOR — aorist; APUD — localization 'at, near'; COMIT — comitative; CONV — converb; COP — copula; DAT — dative; DEMM — demonstrative, M-series (proximal); DEMT — demonstrative, T-series (distal); ELAT — elative; ERG — ergative; GEN — genitive; IN — localization 'inside (a container)'; INTER — localization 'between, in a substance'; IPF — imperfective; LAT — lative; NEG — negative; NMLZ — nominalization marker (in attributives); PF — perfective; PL — plural; PN — person name; POST — localization 'behind'; PRF — perfect; PRS — present; PTCP — participle; RE — refactive (repetitive); SUB/CONT — localization 'under, in contact with'; SUPER — localization 'on'.

Data

Subset examples by valency pattern
Subset examples by locus

1. feel pain ( itːa- ):

Valency pattern: GEN_ABS
X: GEN
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-n k’il itːa-a
pn - gen head ache- prs
‘Aslan has a headache.’
Note: NP in the genitive is arguably a clause-level dependent.

2. have (illness) ( x.u- ):

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s stalǯam x.u-naa
pn - dat pneumonia become. pf - prf
‘Aslan has pneumonia.’

3. be afraid ( guč’a- ):

Valency pattern: DAT_POST.ELAT
X: DAT
Y: POST.ELAT
Locus: XY
aslan.a-s χuj.i-q-as guč’a-a
pn - dat dog- post - elat be.afraid- prs
‘Aslan is afraid of the dog.’

4. throw ( fatːix.i- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a fatːix.i-ne ʁʷan
pn ( erg ) throw. pf - aor stone
‘Aslan threw a stone.’

5. have enough ( hurk’.a- ):

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s pul hurk’.a-a
pn - dat money suffice. ipf - prs
‘Aslan has enough money.’

6. resemble ( uχšar + ‘be’ ):

Valency pattern: ABS_DAT
X: ABS
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan meʜemed.i-s uχšar a-a
pn pn - dat similar { in }be- prs
‘Aslan resembles Muhammad.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

7. believe ( quχ.u- ):

Valency pattern: ABS_POST
X: ABS
Y: POST
Locus: Y
aslan meʜemed.i-q quχ.u-naa
pn pn - post believe. pf - prf
‘Aslan believes Muhammad.’

8. take ( ʁuš.u- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a kitab ʁuš.u-ne (aškːaf.i-as)
pn ( erg ) book take. pf - aor bookshelf-( in ) elat
‘Aslan took a book (from the bookshelf).’

9. see ( agʷ.a- ):

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s χal agʷ.a-a
pn - dat house see. ipf - prs
‘Aslan sees a house.’

10. influence ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
me jaš.tːi-n kar e
demm age- gen matter cop
Lit. ‘Memory is the matter of age.’
Note: Not included in the dataset because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

11. encounter ( alčarx.u- ):

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s meʜemed alčarx.u-ne
pn - dat pn meet. pf - aor
‘Aslan ran into Muhammad.’

12. enter ( ačaj- ):

Valency pattern: ABS_DAT
X: ABS
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan χul.a-s ačaj-ne
pn house- dat { in . lat }come: pf - aor
‘Aslan entered the house.’

13. win ( wartː ʁuš.u- ):

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
aslan.a wartː ʁuš.u-ne meʜemed.i-l
pn ( erg ) top take. pf - aor pn - super
‘Aslan beat Muhammad.’

14. go out ( ajč’.u- ):

Valency pattern: ABS_(IN)ELAT
X: ABS
Y: (IN)ELAT
Locus: Y
aslan χul.a-as ajč’.u-ne
pn house-( in ) elat { in }emerge. pf - aor
‘Aslan went out of the house.’

15. drive ( hik.a- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a mal-ar hik.a-a
pn ( erg ) cattle- pl drive. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is driving the cattle.’

16. bend ( č’ut’.u- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a t’ul č’ut’.u-ne
pn ( erg ) branch crush. pf - aor
‘Aslan bent the branch.’

17. tell ( p.u- ):

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan.a meʜemed.i-s p.u-ne…
pn ( erg ) pn - dat tell. pf - aor
‘Aslan told Muhammad: (‘...’)’

18. hold ( χil.i-ʔ a- ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
aslan.a-n χil.i-ʔ kitab a-a
pn - gen hand- in book { in }be- prs
‘Aslan is holding a book in his hands.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

19. catch up ( qukː.u-na ruq’.u- ):

Valency pattern: ABS_POST
X: ABS
Y: POST
Locus: Y
aslan qukː.u-na meʜemed.i-q ruq’.u-ne
pn chase. pf - conv pn - post reach. pf - aor
‘Aslan caught up with Muhammad’

20. milk ( uz.u- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a ʜüni uz.u-ne
pn ( erg ) cow milk. pf - aor
‘Aslan milked the cow.’

21. reach ( ruq’.u- ):

Valency pattern: ABS_POST.LAT
X: ABS
Y: POST.LAT
Locus: Y
aslan nac’.u-n saje qːireʁ.i-q-tːi ruq’.u-ne
pn river- gen other edge- post - lat reach. pf - aor
‘Aslan reached the other bank of the river.’

22. touch ( kürq’.u- ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
aslan.a-n χil kürq’.u-ne cil.i-k
pn - gen hand { sub / cont }strike. pf - aor wall- sub / cont
‘Aslan touched the wall.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

23. fight ( uqː.a- ):

Valency pattern: ABS_COM
X: ABS
Y: COM
Locus: Y
aslan meʜemed.i-qaj uqː.a-a
pn pn - com fight. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is fighting with Muhammad.’

24. be friends ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
aslan=na meʜemed dustː-ar e
pn =and pn friend- pl cop
‘Aslan and Muhammad are friends.’
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP.

25. think ( fikir q’.a- ):

Valency pattern: ERG_SUBCONT.ELAT
X: ERG
Y: SUBCONT.ELAT
Locus: Y
aslan.a meʜemed.i-k-as fikir q’.a-a
pn ( erg ) pn - sub / cont - elat thought do. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is thinking about Muhammad.’

26. eat ( ʡut’.u- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a ʜač ʡut’.u-ne
pn ( erg ) apple eat. pf - aor
‘Aslan ate an apple.’

27. fry ( žarit’ q’.u- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a baluʁ žarit’ q’.u-ne
pn ( erg ) fish <fry> do. pf - aor
‘Aslan fried the fish.’

28. wait ( ʁuz.u- ):

Valency pattern: ABS_POST.LAT
X: ABS
Y: POST.LAT
Locus: Y
aslan meʜemed.i-q-tːi ʁuz.u-naa
pn pn - post - lat stop. pf - prf
‘Aslan is waiting for Muhammad.’

29. forget ( k’ʷal-as š.u- ):

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s saje reqː k’ʷal-as š.u-ne
pn - dat other road in.memory- elat leave. pf - aor
‘Aslan forgot about the other road.’

30. depend ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

31. call ( un-aq’.u- ):

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan.a meʜemed.i-s un-aq’.u-ne
pn ( erg ) pn - dat sound-do. pf - aor
‘Aslan called Muhammad.’

32. get to know ( taniš-x.u- ):

Valency pattern: ABS_COM
X: ABS
Y: COM
Locus: Y
aslan meʜemed.i-qaj taniš-x.u-ne sa is.a-n üdüh-tːi
pn pn - com get.acquainted-become. pf - aor one year- gen ahead- lat
‘Aslan got to know Muhammad a year ago.’

33. know ( ʜa- ):

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s ʜa-a meʜemed
pn - dat know- prs pn
‘Aslan knows Muhammad.’

34. play (instrument) ( jarʜ.a- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a č’iʁan jarʜ.a-a
pn ( erg ) squeezebox strike. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is playing the sqeezebox.’

35. avoid ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

36. make ( aq’.u- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a bomba aq’.u-ne
pn ( erg ) bomb do. pf - aor
‘Aslan made a bomb.’

37. make fun ( ihanat-ar aq’.a- ):

Valency pattern: ERG_SUBCONT.ELAT
X: ERG
Y: SUBCONT.ELAT
Locus: Y
aslan.a meʜemed.i-k-as ihanat-ar aq’.a-a
pn ( erg ) pn - sub / cont - elat mocking- pl do. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is making fun of Muhammad.’

38. have ( qa- ):

Valency pattern: POST_ABS
X: POST
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-q mašin qa-a
pn - post car { post }be- prs
‘Aslan has a car.’

39. look for ( aruc.a- ):

Valency pattern: ABS_POST.LAT
X: ABS
Y: POST.LAT
Locus: Y
aslan güleg-ar.i-q-tːi aruc.a-a
pn key- pl - post - lat walk. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is looking for his keys.’

40. paint ( šur jarʜ.u- ):

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan.a zabur.i-s šur jarʜ.u-ne
pn ( erg ) fence- dat paint strike. pf - aor
‘Aslan painted the fence.’

41. bite ( fac.u- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
χuj.i fac.u-ne aslan
dog( erg ) grasp. pf - aor pn
‘A dog bit (lit. ‘grasped’) Aslan.’

42. forfeit ( x.u- ):

Valency pattern: ABS_SUBCONT.ELAT
X: ABS
Y: SUBCONT.ELAT
Locus: Y
aslan χul.a-k-as x.u-ne
pn house- sub / cont - elat become. pf - aor
‘Aslan lost his house.’

43. try to catch ( fac.a- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a kitan fac.a-a
pn ( erg ) cat catch. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is trying to catch the cat.’

44. break ( arʕ.u- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a t’ul arʕ.u-ne
pn ( erg ) branch break. pf - aor
‘Aslan broke a stick.’

45. flatter ( qːele-jar jarʜ.a- ):

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan.a ruš.a-s qːele-jar jarʜ.a-a
pn ( erg ) girl- dat flattery- pl srike. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is flattering the girl.’

46. love (person) ( kːande- ):

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s fat’ima kːande-a
pn - dat pn love- prs
‘Aslan loves Fatima.’

47. wave ( tːutː.a- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a jaʁluqː tːutː.a-a
pn ( erg ) handkerchief shake. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is waving a handkerchief.’

48. dream ( jurk’.ura-n χijal + COP ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
c’aje mašin aslan.a-n jurk’.ura-n χijal e
new car pn - gen heart- gen thought cop
‘Aslan is dreaming of a new car.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

49. wash ( ʡučː.u- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a qːab ʡučː.u-ne
pn ( erg ) tableware wash. pf - aor
‘Aslan washed the dishes.’

50. put on ( lik’.i- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a šawlar lik’.i-ne
pn ( erg ) trousers put.on. pf - aor
‘Aslan put on his trousers.’

51. be called ( tːur + COP ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
me šeʔ.ü-n tːur kːompːas e
demm thing- gen name compass cop
‘This thing is called a compass.’
Note: Not included in the database because 1) X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier and 2) Y is expressed as a (non-verbal) predicate (not an argument).

52. punish ( nakːazat q’.u- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a uč.i-n gada nakːazat q’.u-ne
pn ( erg ) self- gen son <punish> do. pf - aor
‘Aslan punished his son.’

53. attack ( alčiš.i- ):

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
ʕurčaqban.di-l bengiš alčiš.i-ne
hunter- super bear { super . lat }jump. pf - aor
‘A bear attacked a hunter.’

54. fill (intr) ( ac’.u- ):

Valency pattern: ABS_ERG
X: ABS
Y: ERG
Locus: Y
bedra xitː.a ac’.u-ne
bucket water( erg ) fill(intr.). pf - aor
‘The bucket filled with water.’

55. find ( (qa-)ǯik’.i- ):

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s güleg-ar (qa-)ǯik’.i-ne
pn - dat key- pl re -find. pf - aor
‘Aslan found his keys.’

56. be short ( hurk’.u + NEG ):

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s sa manat hurk’.u-ndawa
pn - dat one ruble suffice. pf - aor : neg
‘Aslan is short one ruble.’

57. hate ( dušman-di + ‘be’ ):

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s meʜemed dušman-di a
pn - dat pn enemy- adv { in }be: prs
‘Aslan hates Muhammad.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

58. like ( begemiš-tːi + ‘be’ ):

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s me berʜem begemiš-tːi a
pn - dat demm shirt <like>- adv { in }be: prs
‘Aslan likes this shirt.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

59. need ( gerek-tːi + ‘be’ ):

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s pul gerek-tːi a
pn - dat money necessary- adv { in }be: prs
‘Aslan needs money.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

60. surround ( aldark.u-naa ):

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
šahar (jaq’u pːatː.a-k-as) cil-ar.i-l-di aldark.u-naa
town four side- sub / cont - elat wall- pl - super - lat encircle. pf - prf
‘Walls surround the city.’ (lit. ‘The city is circled by the walls from four sides.’)

61. remain ( fame- ):

Valency pattern: APUD_ABS
X: APUD
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-w ic’u manat fame-a
pn - apud 10 ruble { apud }remain- prs
‘Aslan has 10 rubles left.’

62. answer ( ǯuwab i- ):

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan.a müʡelim.di-s ǯuwab i-ne
pn ( erg ) teacher- dat answer give: pf - aor
‘Aslan answered the teacher.’

63. open ( daq.u- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a bankːa daq.u-ne
pn ( erg ) can open. pf - aor
‘Aslan opened a can.’

64. be different ( ǯüre-f + COP ):

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER.ELAT
X: ABS
Y: SUPER.ELAT
Locus: Y
ze berʜem ǯüre-f e we-tː.i-l-as
я: gen shirt separate- nmlz cop you- nmlz - super - elat
‘My shirt is different from yours.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

65. fall behind ( qatːarx.u- ):

Valency pattern: ABS_POST.ELAT
X: ABS
Y: POST.ELAT
Locus: Y
aslan qatːarx.u-ne meʜemed.i-q-as
pn { post . elat }get. pf - aor pn - post - elat
‘Aslan fell behind Muhammad.’

66. plough ( izan aq’.a- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a χupː-ur izan aq’.a-a
pn ( erg ) field- pl <plowing> do. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is ploughing the field.’

67. smell ( niʔ qa- ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ze χil-ar.i-q binzin.i niʔ qa-a
i : gen hand- pl - post gasoline( gen ) smell { post }be- prs
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

68. cross ( te qːʷal.a-s ajč’.u- ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
aslan reqː.ü-n te qːʷal.a-s ajč’.u-ne
pn road- gen demt side- dat { in }emerge. pf - aor
‘Aslan crossed the road.’ (lit. ‘Aslan emerged on the other side of the road.’)
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

69. sing ( q’.u- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a sa bat’ar meʕni q’.u-ne
pn ( erg ) one beautiful song do. pf - aor
‘Aslan sang a beautiful song.’

70. write ( lik’.i- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a k’eǯ lik’.i-ne
pn ( erg ) letter write. pf - aor
‘Aslan wrote a letter.’

71. drink ( uχ.u- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a nekː uχ.u-ne
pn ( erg ) milk drink. pf - aor
‘Aslan drank the milk.’

72. melt ( uc’.u- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a qːurqːušum uc’.u-ne
pn ( erg ) lead melt. pf - aor
‘Aslan melted a piece of lead.’
Note: Labile verb.

73. match ( düx.e- ):

Valency pattern: ABS_DAT
X: ABS
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
me č’il ze berʜem.i-s düx.e-a
demm belt i : gen shirt- dat match. ipf - prs
‘This belt matches my dress.’

74. leave ( at.u- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a uč.i-n ruχ.u šahar at.u-ne
pn ( erg ) self- gen be.born. pf town leave. pf - aor
‘Aslan left his native city.’

75. cover ( fac.a- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
q’adilq’ʷan.di k’ildi ǯil fac.a-a
carpet( erg ) fully graound grasp. ipf - prs
‘The carpet covers the whole floor.’

76. remember ( jurk’.ura-l alme- ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
aslan.a-n jurk’.ura-l alme-a χal
pn - gen heart- super { super }remains- prs house
‘Aslan remembers the house well.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

77. help ( kümek q’.u- ):

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan.a meʜemed.i-s kümek q’.u-ne
pn ( erg ) pn - dat help do. pf - aor
‘Aslan helped Muhammad’

78. understand (language) ( ʁawur.di arx.a- ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
aslan ʡurus č’al.a-n ʁawur.di arx.a-a
pn russian speech- gen understanding( in ) { in }get. ipf - prs
‘Aslan understands Russian.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

79. hit (target) ( jarʜ.u- ):

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ABS
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
c’ajlapan χul.a-s jarʜ.u-ne
lightning house- dat strike. pf - aor
‘Lightning hit the house.’

80. cut oneself ( at’.u- ):

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER.LAT
X: ERG
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
aslan.a uč.i-n muʔul at’.u-ne lezwi-l-di
pn ( erg ) self- gen lip cut. pf - aor blade- super - lat
‘Aslan cut himself with the (razor’s) blade.’

81. get stuck ( küqː.u- ):

Valency pattern: ABS_SUBCONT
X: ABS
Y: SUBCONT
Locus: Y
istːikan ustːul.i-k küqː.u-ne
glass table- sub / cont { sub / cont }get.stuck. pf - aor
‘The glass got stuck to the table.’

82. lose (game) ( aq x.u- ):

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER.ELAT
X: ABS
Y: SUPER.ELAT
Locus: Y
aslan meʜemed.i-l-as aq x.u-ne
pn pn - super - elat down become. pf - aor
‘Aslan lost to Muhammad.’

83. be glad ( šad-x.u- ):

Valency pattern: ABS_DAT
X: ABS
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan k’eǯ.ü-s šad-x.u-ne
pn letter- dat glad-become. pf - aor
‘Aslan was glad about the letter.’

84. speak ( raχ.a- ):

Valency pattern: ABS_COM
X: ABS
Y: COM
Locus: Y
aslan meʜemed.i-qaj raχ.a-a
pn pn - com speak. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is speaking with Muhammad.’

85. give birth ( ruχ.u- ):

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
fat’im.i-s gada ruχ.u-ne
pn - dat son be.born. pf - aor
‘Fatima gave birth to a son.’

86. drop ( fatːarx.u- ):

Valency pattern: APUD.ELAT_ABS
X: APUD.ELAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-f-as istːik’an fatːarx.u-ne
pn - apud - elat glass { apud . elat }get. pf - aor
‘Aslan dropped the glass.’

87. govern ( aʜa-f + COP ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
aslan če ʜür.i-n aʜa-f e
pn we: gen village- gen big- nmlz cop
‘Aslan runs our town’ (lit. ‘Aslan is our town’s chief’).
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

88. miss ( dariχ x.u- ):

Valency pattern: ABS_POST.LAT
X: ABS
Y: POST.LAT
Locus: Y
aslan dariχ x.u-naa baw.a-q-tːi
pn miss become. pf - prf mother- post - lat
‘Aslan misses his mother.’

89. follow ( ʕʷ.a- ):

Valency pattern: ABS_GENxupaqas
X: ABS
Y: GENxupaqas
Locus: Y
aslan meʜemed.i-n χupːaq-as ʕʷ.a-a
pn pn - gen behind- elat go. ipf - prs
‘Aslan follows Muhammad.’

90. dismount ( alajč’.u- ):

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER.ELAT
X: ABS
Y: SUPER.ELAT
Locus: Y
aslan ʜajwan.di-l-as alajč’.u-ne
pn horse- super - elat { super }emerge. pf - aor
‘Aslan got down from the horse.’

91. listen ( ubur qix.i- ):

Valency pattern: ERG_POST
X: ERG
Y: POST
Locus: Y
aslan.a radi-q ubur qix.i-naa
pn ( erg ) radi- post ear { post }put. pf - prf
‘Aslan is listening to radio.’

92. obey ( ubur lix.a- ):

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
aslan.a baw.a-l ubur lix.a-a
pn ( erg ) mother- super ear { super }put. ipf - prs
‘Aslan listens to his mother.’

93. hear ( un-x.a- ):

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s muq’am-ar un-x.a-a
pn - dat tune- pl sound-become. ipf - prs
‘Aslan hears the music.’

94. mix ( uc’.u- ):

Valency pattern: ABS_INTER
X: ABS
Y: INTER
Locus: Y
ütː uc’.u-ne nekː.di-ʕ
honey melt. pf - aor milk- inter
‘The honey got mixed with the milk.’ (lit. ‘The honey dissolved in the milk.’)

95. look ( χutːurf.a- ):

Valency pattern: ABS_DAT
X: ABS
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan dif-ar.i-s χutːurf.a-a
pn fog- pl - dat look. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is looking at the clouds.’

96. take off ( latːaq.u- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a berʜem latːaq.u-ne
pn ( erg ) shirt take_off. pf - aor
‘Aslan took off his shirt.’

97. dream (sleeping) ( agʷ.a- ʡemk’.e-k-as ):

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s meʜemed agʷ.a-a ʡemk’.e-k-as
pn - dat pn see. ipf - prs dream- sub / cont - elat
‘Aslan dreams about Muhammad.’

98. agree ( rezi x.u- ):

Valency pattern: ABS_COM
X: ABS
Y: COM
Locus: Y
aslan rezi x.u-ne baw.a-qaj
pn content become. pf - aor mother- com
‘Aslan agreed with his mother.’

99. have a quarrel ( qel aq’.u- ):

Valency pattern: ERG_COM
X: ERG
Y: COM
Locus: Y
aslan.a meʜemed.i-qaj qel aq’.u-ne
pn ( erg ) pn - com resentment do. pf - aor
‘Aslan had a quarrel with Muhammad.’

100. cost ( q’imat + COP ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
me qːab.u-n q’imat ic’u manat e
demm dishes- gen price 10 ruble cop
‘This cup costs ten rubles.’
Note: Not included in the database because 1) X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier and 2) Y is expressed as a (non-verbal) predicate (not an argument).

101. shoot at ( tufang.i-as jarʜ.u- ):

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan.a tufang.i-as jarʜ.u-ne ǯaq’ʷ.ala-s
pn ( erg ) gun-( in ) elat strike. pf - aor sparrow- dat
‘Aslan shot at the sparrow.’

102. pour ( aq.u- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a pusuk’ aq.u-ne kuruškː.i-ʔ
pn ( erg ) sugar { in }pour. pf - aor mug- in
‘Aslan poured the sugar into the mug.’

103. lose ( gul.u- ):

Valency pattern: APUD.ELAT_ABS
X: APUD.ELAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-f-as güleg-ar gul.u-ne
pn - apud - elat key- pl disappear. pf - aor
‘Aslan lost his keys.’

104. sink ( ʕarx.u-na ahajš.u- ):

Valency pattern: ABS_INTER
X: ABS
Y: INTER
Locus: Y
c’aχun xitː.a-ʕ ʕarx.u-na ahajš.u-ne
log water- inter { inter }get. pf - conv sink. pf - aor
‘The log sank in the water.’

105. kill ( k’.i- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a meʜemed k’.i-ne
pn ( erg ) pn kill. pf - aor
‘Aslan killed Muhammad.’

106. hit ( ačarx.u- ):

Valency pattern: ERG_IN
X: ERG
Y: IN
Locus: Y
aslan.a meʜemed.i-ʔ ačarx.u-ne
pn ( erg ) pn - in { in . lat }get. pf - aor
‘Aslan hit Muhammad.’

107. kiss ( p’ac ik’.i- ):

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan.a šünükː.i-s p’ac ik’.i-ne
pn ( erg ) child- dat kiss { in }poke. pf - aor
‘Aslan kissed the child.’

108. read ( ruχ.u- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a sa iǯe kitab ruχ.u-ne
pn ( erg ) one good book read. pf - aor
‘Aslan read a good book.’

109. move (bodypart) ( t’ušar-q’.u- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a t’ub-ar t’ušar-q’.u-ne
pn ( erg ) finger- pl move-do. pf - aor
‘Aslan moved his finger.’

110. respect ( uwažat q’.a- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a meʜemed uwažat q’.a-a
pn ( erg ) pn <respect> do. ipf - prs
‘Aslan respects Muhammad.’

111. be squeamish ( karih-tːi + ‘be’ ):

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s kur.u qːab-ar karih-tːi a
pn - dat get_dirty. pf ( ptcp ) dishes- pl disgusting- adv { in }be: prs
‘Aslan is squeamish about dirty dishes.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

112. be content ( rezi-di + ‘be’ ):

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
aslan uč.i-n gada.ji-l rezi-di a
pn self- gen son- super content- adv { in }be: prs
‘Aslan is content with his son.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

113. fall in love ( kːan-x.u- ):

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s fat’ima kːan-x.u-ne
pn - dat pn love-become. pf - aor
‘Aslan fell in love with Fatima.’

114. trust ( quχ.a- ):

Valency pattern: ABS_POST
X: ABS
Y: POST
Locus: Y
aslan uč.i-n čːučːu-q quχ.a-a
pn self- gen brother- post believe. ipf - prs
‘Aslan trusts his brother.’

115. sympathise ( ʜajif-tːi + ‘be’ ):

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s uč.i-n baw ʜajif-tːi a
pn - dat self- gen mother pitiful- adv { in }be: prs
‘Aslan sympathises with his mother.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

116. envy ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

117. be angry ( qel ke- ):

Valency pattern: DAT_SUBCONT.ELAT
X: DAT
Y: SUBCONT.ELAT
Locus: XY
aslan.a-s meʜemed.i-k-as qel ke-a
pn - dat pn - sub / cont - elat resentment { sub / cont }be- prs
‘Aslan is angry with Muhammad.’

118. be surprised ( ʡalamat x.u- ):

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
aslan ʡalamat x.u-ne [uč.i-s aq’.u peškeš.i-l]
pn amazing become. pf - aor self- dat do. pf ( ptcp ) gift- super
‘Aslan was surprised at this gift that he received.’

119. love (tea) ( kːan- ):

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s čaj kːan-e-f-e
pn - dat tea love- ptcp - nmlz - cop
‘Aslan loves tea.’

120. enjoy ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
aslan.a ʡašqː.una-l-di čaj uχ.a-a
pn ( erg ) passion- super - lat tea drink. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is drinking tea with pleasure.’
Note: Not included in the database because the intended meaning is expressed by a structurally discontinuous combination.

121. want ( kːande- ):

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s c’aje tilifun kːande-a
pn - dat new phone want- prs
‘Aslan wants a new phone.’

122. have a grudge ( qel ke- ):

Valency pattern: DAT_SUBCONT.ELAT
X: DAT
Y: SUBCONT.ELAT
Locus: XY
aslan.a-s meʜemed.i-k-as qel ke-a
pn - dat pn - sub / cont - elat resentment { sub / cont }be- prs
‘Aslan has a grudge against Muhammad.’

123. take offence ( qel aq’.u- ):

Valency pattern: ERG_SUBCONT.ELAT
X: ERG
Y: SUBCONT.ELAT
Locus: Y
aslan.a meʜemed.i-k-as qel aq’.u-ne
pn ( erg ) pn - sub / cont - elat resentment do. pf - aor
‘Aslan took offence at Muhammad.’

124. upset ( pašman q’.u- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a meʜemed pašman q’.u-ne
pn ( erg ) pn sad do. pf - aor
‘Aslan greatly upset Muhammad.’

125. marvel ( ʡalamat x.u- ):

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
aslan ʡalamat x.u-ne me šahar.di-l
pn amazing become. pf - aor demm town- super
‘Aslan was struck by this town.’

126. despise ( alčaq-tːi fac.u- ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a uč.i-n ču alčaq-tːi fac.u-naa
pn ( erg ) self- gen brother despicable- adv hold. pf - prf
‘Aslan despises his brother.’

127. get upset ( kːan- + NEG ):

Valency pattern: DAT_SUBCONT
X: DAT
Y: SUBCONT
Locus: XY
aslan.a-s uč.i-n gada.ji-k-as da-kːan-x.u-ne
pn - dat self- gen son- sub / cont - elat neg -love-become. pf - aor
‘Aslan got upset with his son.’

128. get irritated ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

129. be fond ( begemiš-tːi + ‘be’ ):

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s meʜemed begemiš-tːi a
pn - dat pn <like>- adv { in }be: prs
‘Aslan is fond of Muhammad.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

130. be shy ( neč-tːi + ‘be’ ):

Valency pattern: DAT_SUBCONT.ELAT
X: DAT
Y: SUBCONT.ELAT
Locus: XY
aslan.a-s uč.i-n ǯiqːe-ʕʷel.i-k-as neč-tːi a
pn - dat self- gen short- abstr - sub / cont - elat shame- adv { in }be: prs
‘Aslan is shy about his height.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.