BivalTyp

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Abaza

Contributed by Peter Arkadiev (Academia.edu profile)

P.A.'s photo

The data were gathered in 2017 in the village Inzhich-Chukun of the Abazinsky district of the Karachay-Cherkess Republic. They represent the Tapanta dialect. Different examples come from different native speakers, hence the variation in the shape of some morphemes, in particular, the declarative suffixes -ṭ/-d and -ṗ/-b. The Russian version of the questionnaire was used for elicitation.

How to cite

Arkadiev, Peter. 2021. Bivalent patterns in Abaza. In: Say, Sergey (ed.). BivalTyp: Typological database of bivalent verbs and their encoding frames. St. Petersburg: Institute for Linguistic Studies, RAS. (Data first published on January 08, 2021; last revised on January 21, 2021.) (Available online at https://www.bivaltyp.info, Accessed on .)

Basic info

Grammar notes

Basic clause structure and the transitive construction

Abaza is a polysynthetic language with almost exceptionless head-marking. All arguments of the verb are indexed on the verb by person/number and gender (class) prefixes. Argument indexing displays the ergative alignment. There are two types of indexes: absolutive prefixes are used for encoding S- and O-arguments and non-absolutive prefixes are used for encoding all other arguments. If non-absolutive indexes are used for encoding A-arguments, they are referred to as “ergative” indexes; otherwise, they are referred to as “indirect object” indexes. The actual form of indexes in shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Person/number and gender indexes

ABS ERG/IO
1SG s(ə)- s(ə)-/z-
2SG.M w(ə)- w(ə)-
2SG.F b(ə)- b(ə)-/p-
3SG.M d(ə)- j(ə)-
3SG.F d(ə)- l(ə)-
3SG.N j(ə)-/Ø na-/a-
1PL h(ə)- h(ə)-/ʕ-
2PL ŝ(ə)- ŝ(ə)-/ẑ-
3PL j(ə)-/Ø r(ə)-/d(ə)-

Linear position of indexes is even more important for distinguishing between the verb’s arguments than the shape of indexes. Absolutive indexes always occupy the leftmost slot in the verb. Ergative indexes, if present, are always the rightmost indexes in the verb. 3PL and non-human 3SG absolutive indexes can be zero-realized (see Table 1) if the relevant argument is expressed as a full noun phrase in the immediately pre-verbal position (the neutral word order is S(O)V). Both (1) and (2) are examples of the basic transitive construction.


(1) fatíma  murád  də-l-də́r-əj-d
    PN      PN     3SG.H.ABS-3SG.F.ERG-know-PRS-DCL
    ‘Fatima knows Murad.’

(2) á-č’ḳʷən  a-bánka  ʕa-qə-j-ṭə́-d
    DEF-boy   DEF-jar  CISL-LOC-3SG.M.ERG-open-DCL
    ‘The boy opened the jar.’

Indexing of non-core arguments is normally associated with applicative preverbs, including benefactive (z-), comitative (c-), malefactive (ĉ-) and a large number of locative preverbs. These indexes always immediately precede their respective preverbs. In (3), the second argument (‘Fatima’) is associated with the benefactive preverb and is indexed in the slot immediately preceding the benefactive preverb (the valency pattern of this verb can be represented as ABS_BEN).


(3) murad  fatima  d-lə-z-qʷə́c-əj-ṭ
    PN     PN      3SG.H.ABS-3SG.F.IO-BEN-think-PRS-DCL
    ‘Murad is thinking about Fatima.’

In some cases, indirect objects are not associated with an overt preverb and can be formally indistinguishable from ergative arguments, as in (4).


(4) fatíma  á-psthʷa-kʷa  də-r-pš-ə́j-ṭ
    PN      DEF-cloud-PL  3SG.H.ABS-3PL.IO-look-PRS-DCL
    ‘Fatima is looking at the clouds.’

All locative preverbs are invariably glossed “LOC”, but the actual shape of the specific applicative preverb is indicated (in a simplified form) in the valency pattern label, e.g., the valency pattern of the verb in (5) is represented as “ABS_LOCpca”, because the second argument is associated with the locative preverb p.č̣a.


(5) rasúl murád d-ʕa-j-p.č̣a-ŝá-ṭ
    PN PN 3SG.H.ABS-CISL-3SG.M.IO-LOC-fall(AOR)-DCL
    ‘Rasul ran into Murad.’

The linear order of verb prefixes, including applicative preverbs and their respective indexes, is fixed.

Case system

There is no grammatical case on nouns. The only nominal dependent marker found in the data is the instrumental -la.

Verb lemmas

Verbs are quoted in the form of roots in combination with all preverbs that are relevant for the expression of the relevant lexical meaning. Thus, ‘to know’ from (1) is quoted as dər, and ‘to open’ from (2), as qə-ṭə. If a certain preverb is used as an applicative marker associated with a slot for indexing one of the two pre-defined arguments (X or Y), this preverb is shown in square brackets, e.g., ‘to think’ from (3) is quoted as [z-]qʷəc.

Glossing abbreviations

1, 2, 3 — 1st, 2nd, 3rd person; ABS — absolutive; AOR — aorist; ADV — adverb; BEN — benefactive; CAUS — causative; CISL — cislocative; COM — comitative; COND — conditional; DAT — dative; DCL — declarative; DEF — definite; DIST — distal; ERG — ergative; F — feminine; FUT — future; H — human; IMP — imperative; INC — inceptive; INDF — indefinite; INS — instrumental; IO — indirect object; IPF — imperfective; JUD — judicative; LOC — locative preverb; M — masculine; MAL — malefactive; N — non-human; NEG — negative; NFIN — non-finite; NML — nominalization; NPST — non-past; PL — plural; PN — person name; PROX — proximative; PRS — present; PST — past; RE — refactive; SG — singular; SOC — sociative; TRAL — translocative; UNIT — numeral suffix.

Data

Subset examples by valency pattern
Subset examples by locus

1. feel pain ( χ’ə ):

Valency pattern: IO_ABS
X: IO
Y: ABS
Locus: X
á-č̣’ḳʷən j-qá jə́-χ’-əj-ṭ
def -boy 3 sg . m . io -head 3 sg . m . io -ache- prs - dcl
‘The boy has a headache.’

2. have (illness) ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

3. be afraid ( [ĉ-]ŝa ):

Valency pattern: ABS_MAL
X: ABS
Y: MAL
Locus: Y
á-č̣’ḳʷən a-lá d-a-ĉ-ŝ-ə́j-ṭ
def -boy def -dog 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . n . io - mal -be_afraid- prs - dcl
‘The boy is afraid of the dog.’

4. throw ( w-š’tə ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
á-č̣’ḳʷən-ĉa-kʷa a-háqʷ-kʷa j-á-wə-r-š’t-əj-ṭ
def -boy- pl . h - pl def -stone- pl 3 pl . abs -3 n . io - loc -3 pl . erg -throw- prs - dcl
‘The boys are throwing the stones.’

5. have enough ( [z-]qa ):

Valency pattern: BEN_ABS
X: BEN
Y: ABS
Locus: X
wəẑə́ zaréma l-áχč’a lə-z-q-ə́j-ṭ
now pn 3 sg . f . io -money 3 sg . f . io - ben -be_enough- prs - dcl
‘Now Zarema has enough money.’

6. resemble ( apš ):

Valency pattern: ABS_IO
X: ABS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
wará s-aχš’á w-l-apš-ṗ
you. m 1 sg . io -sister 2 sg . m . abs -3 sg . f . io -similar- npst . dcl
‘You resemble my sister.’

7. believe ( [z-]qa-c̣a ):

Valency pattern: ERG_BEN
X: ERG
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
rasúl zaréma j-lə-z-qá-j-c̣-əj-ṭ
pn pn 3 sg . n . abs -3 sg . f . io - ben - loc -3 sg . m . erg -believe- prs - dcl
‘Rasul believes Zarema.’

8. take ( ʕa-χʷ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
a-phʷə́spa á-pχ’aga ʕa-l-áχʷ-ṭ
def -girl def -book cisl -3 sg . f . erg -take( aor )- dcl
‘The girl took the book.’

9. see ( ba ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
a-phʷə́spa a-tʒə́ l-b-ə́j-ṭ
def -girl def -house 3 sg . f . erg -see- prs - dcl
‘The girl sees the house.’

10. influence ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

11. encounter ( [p-]č̣a-ŝá ):

Valency pattern: ABS_LOCpca
X: ABS
Y: LOCp
Locus: Y
rasúl murád d-ʕa-j-p.č̣a-ŝá-ṭ
pn pn 3 sg . h . abs - cisl -3 sg . m . io - loc -fall( aor )- dcl
‘Rasul ran into Murad.’

12. enter ( šəl ):

Valency pattern: ABS_NONARG
X: ABS
Y: NONARG
Locus: Y
a-phʷə́spa a-tʒə́ d-na-šə́l-ṭ
def -girl def -house 3 sg . h . abs - tral -enter( aor )- dcl
‘The girl entered the house.’

13. win ( ajʕaj ):

Valency pattern: ABS_IO
X: ABS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
bará sará b-s-ajʕáj-ṭ
you. f i 2 sg . f . abs -1 sg . io -win( aor )- dcl
‘You beat me.’

14. go out ( ʕa-[ʒ̂ə.l-]c̣ ):

Valency pattern: ABS_LOCzele
X: ABS
Y: LOCzele
Locus: Y
a-phʷə́spa a-tʒə́ d-ʕa-ʒ̂ə́.l-c̣-ṭ
def -girl def -house 3 sg . h . abs - cisl - loc -pass- dcl
‘The girl went out of the house.’

15. drive ( t-ca ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
á-raχʷχč’a a-ẑ tə-j-c-ə́j-ṭ
def -herdsman def -cow loc -3 sg . m . erg -drive- prs - dcl
‘The herdsman is driving the cow.’

16. bend ( rə.qʷa ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
á-č̣’ḳʷən a-q̇ʷadáma j-rə́-qʷa-ṭ
def -boy def -branch 3 sg . m . erg - caus -bend( aor )- dcl
‘The boy bent the branch.’

17. tell ( hʷa ):

Valency pattern: ERG_IO
X: ERG
Y: IO
Locus: Y
fatíma zaréma j-l-á-l-hʷa-ṭ: sas-rá s-pnə b-ʕa-j
pn pn 3 sg . n . abs -3 sg . f . io - dat -3 sg . f . erg -say( aor )- dcl guest- nml 1 sg . io -to 2 sg . f . abs - cisl -come( imp )
‘Fatima told Zarema: «Come to my place!».’
Note: The absolutive slot corresponds to the content of speech.

18. hold ( ma ):

Valency pattern: IO_ABS
X: IO
Y: ABS
Locus: X
a-phʷə́spa á-pχ’aga lə́-ma-ṗ
def -girl def -book 3 sg . f . io -be- npst . dcl
‘The girl is holding the book.’

19. catch up ( [χ’ə-]ʒa ):

Valency pattern: ABS_LOCxe
X: ABS
Y: LOCxe
Locus: Y
murád fatíma də-l-χ’ə́-ʒa-ṭ
pn pn 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . f . io - loc -reach( aor )- dcl
‘Murad caught up with Fatima.’

20. milk ( χ’a ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
s-aχš’á a-ẑ l-χ’a-ṭ
1 sg . io -sister def -cow 3 sg . f . erg -milk( aor )- dcl
‘My sister milked the cow.’

21. reach ( [z-]na-ʒa ):

Valency pattern: ABS_BEN
X: ABS
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
murád a-nə́rĉ d-a-zə-na-ʒá-d
pn def -bank 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . n . io - ben - tral -reach( aor )- dcl
‘Murad reached the river bank.’

22. touch ( [χ’ə-]sə ):

Valency pattern: ABS_LOCxe
X: ABS
Y: LOCxe
Locus: Y
rasúl a-bɮən d-a-χ’ə́-s-ṭ
pn def -wall 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . n . io - loc -touch( aor )- dcl
‘Rasul touched the wall.’

23. fight ( [aba-]ḳə ):

Valency pattern: ABS_SOC
X: ABS
Y: SOC
Locus: Y
rasúl murád d-j-ába-ḳ-əj-ṭ
pn pn 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . m . io - soc -fight- prs - dcl
‘Rasul is fighting with Murad.’

24. be friends ( nbž’aʕʷ ):

Valency pattern: IO_ABS
X: IO
Y: ABS
Locus: X
rasúl murád d-jə́-nbž’aʕʷ-ṗ
pn pn 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . m . io -friend- npst . dcl
‘Rasul is friends with Murad.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

25. think ( [z-]qʷəc ):

Valency pattern: ABS_BEN
X: ABS
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
murad fatima d-lə-z-qʷə́c-əj-ṭ
pn pn 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . f . io - ben -think- prs - dcl
‘Murad is thinking about Fatima.’

26. eat ( fa ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
a-phʷə́spa a-ĉ̣á l-fa-ṭ
def -girl def -apple 3 sg . f . erg -eat( aor )- dcl
‘The girl ate the apple.’

27. fry ( rə.ʒə ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
a-qác̣a a-pslaĉá j-rə́-ʒ-ṭ
def -man def -fish 3 sg . m . erg - caus -fry- dcl
‘The man fried the fish.’

28. wait ( [z-]pšə ):

Valency pattern: ABS_BEN
X: ABS
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
b-s-zə-m-pšə́-n
2 sg . f . abs -1 sg . io - ben - neg -wait- neg . imp
‘Don’t wait for me!’

29. forget ( [q-]aštəl ):

Valency pattern: LOCq_ABS
X: LOCq
Y: ABS
Locus: X
murád jəʕʷbaχəwz a-mʕʷa j-q-áštəl-(χ-)ṭ
pn second def -road 3 sg . m . io - loc -forget( aor )-( re )- dcl
‘Murad forgot about the other road.’

30. depend ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

31. call ( ʕa-z-č̣ə-t ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
murád rasúl d-ʕa-z-č̣ə́-j-t-d
pn pn 3 sg . h . abs - cisl - ben - loc -3 sg . m . erg -call( aor )- dcl
‘Murad called Rasul.’

32. get to know ( [aba-]dər ):

Valency pattern: ABS_SOC
X: ABS
Y: SOC
Locus: Y
fatíma murád c̣əpχ d-j-aba-də́r-d
pn pn last_year 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . m . io - soc -know( aor )- dcl
‘Fatima got to know Murad a year ago.’

33. know ( dər ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
fatíma murád də-l-də́r-əj-d
pn pn 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . f . erg -know- prs - dcl
‘Fatima knows Murad.’

34. play (instrument) ( ):

Valency pattern: ABS_IO
X: ABS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
fatíma gitára d-á-s-əj-d
pn guitar 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . n . io -hit- prs - dcl
‘Fatima is playing the guitar.’

35. avoid ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

36. make ( č’pa ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
rasúl bómba j-č’pa-d
pn bomb 3 sg . m . erg -make( aor )- dcl
‘Rasul made a bomb.’

37. make fun ( laq̇ərdə́ č’pa ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
zaréma rasúl laq̇ərdə́ də-l-č’p-ə́j-d
pn pn fun 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . f . erg -make- prs - dcl
‘Zarema is making fun of Rasul.’

38. have ( ma ):

Valency pattern: IO_ABS
X: IO
Y: ABS
Locus: X
zaréma mašína lə́-ma-b
pn car 3 sg . f . io -be- npst . dcl
‘Zarema has a car.’

39. look for ( [zə-]pšʕa ):

Valency pattern: ABS_BEN
X: ABS
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
á-č’ḳʷən a-c̣apχaṭə́ga d-a-zə́-pšʕ-əj-d
def -boy def -key 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . n . io - ben -look_for- prs - dcl
‘The boy is looking for the key.’

40. paint ( ŝə ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
á-č’ḳʷən a-gʷára j-ŝə́-d
def -boy def -fence 3 sg . m . erg -paint( aor )- dcl
‘The boy painted the fence.’

41. bite ( cha ):

Valency pattern: ABS_IO
X: ABS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
a-lá sará j-ʕa-sə-cha-d
def -dog i 3 sg . n . abs - cisl -1 sg . io -bite( aor )- dcl
‘The dog bit me.’

42. forfeit ( [l-]qʷdaχa ):

Valency pattern: ABS_LOCl
X: ABS
Y: LOCl
Locus: Y
murád j-tʒə́ d-á-l-qʷdaχa-d
pn 3 sg . m . io -house 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . n . io - loc -lose( aor )- dcl
‘Murad lost his house.’

43. try to catch ( ʕa-ḳə ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
a-phʷə́spa a-cgʷə́ ʕá-l-ḳ-əj-d
def -girl def -cat cisl -3 sg . f . erg -try_to_catch- prs - dcl
‘The girl is trying to catch the cat.’

44. break ( qə-ĉ̣a ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
á-č’ḳʷən a-labá qə-j-ĉ̣á-d
def -boy def -stick loc -3 sg . m . erg -break( aor )- dcl
‘The boy broke the stick.’

45. flatter ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

46. love (person) ( bzəj ba ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
murád fatíma bzə́j də-j-b-ə́j-d
pn pn well 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . m . erg -see- prs - dcl
‘Murad loves Fatima.’

47. wave ( q̇’a ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
a-phʷə́spa á-ḳas l-q̇’-əj-d
def -girl def -shawl 3 sg . f . erg -wave- prs - dcl
‘The girl is waving the shawl.’

48. dream ( [z-]qʷəc ):

Valency pattern: ABS_BEN
X: ABS
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
rasúl mašína–č̣əc d-a-z-qʷə́c-əj-d
pn car­–new3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . n . io - ben -think- prs - dcl
‘Rasul is dreaming of a new car.’

49. wash ( ʒ̂ʒ̂a ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
a-č’ḳʷən a-č̣’at j-ʒ̂ʒ̂a-d
def -boy def -cup 3 sg . m . erg -wash( aor )- dcl
‘The boy washed the cup.’

50. put on ( ŝ-c̣a ):

Valency pattern: LOCsERG_ABS
X: LOCsERG
Y: ABS
Locus: X
a-qác̣a ajkʷá j-ŝ-jə́-c̣a-d
def -man trousers 3 sg . m . io - loc -3 sg . m . erg -put( aor )- dcl
‘The boy put on his trousers.’
Note: The X argument is indexed on the verb twice (in the ergative slot and in the slot associated with the locative preverb ŝ-).

51. be called ( χ’əz ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
arə́j a-pq̇ə́ʕʷa á-χ’əz kompas-b
prox def -thing 3 sg . n . io -name compass- npst . dcl
‘This thing is called a compass.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as a (non-verbal) predicate (not an argument). Non-verbal predicate.

52. punish ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

53. attack ( [gʷə.kʷ-]sə ):

Valency pattern: ABS_LOCgwekwe
X: ABS
Y: LOCgwekwe
Locus: Y
á-mŝ a-pslaĉaḳʕʷə́ j-gʷə́.kʷ-s-d
def -bear def -fisherman 3 sg . n . abs +3 sg . m . io - loc -hit( aor )- dcl
‘The bear attacked the fisherman.’

54. fill (intr) ( znaχa ):

Valency pattern: IO_ABS
X: IO
Y: ABS
Locus: X
a-pš’ərhá-kʷa ʒə́ rə́-zna-χa-d
def -bucket- pl water 3 pl . io -full- inc ( aor )- dcl
‘The buckets filled with water.’

55. find ( ʕa-aw ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
a-phʷə́spa a-c̣apχá ʕa-l-áw-d
def -girl def -key cisl -3 sg . f . erg -find( aor )- dcl
‘The girl found the key.’

56. be short ( gχa ):

Valency pattern: IO_ABS
X: IO
Y: ABS
Locus: X
murád ẑa–som-ḳ jə-gχ-ə́j-d
pn ten–rouble- unit 3 sg . m . io -lack- prs - dcl
‘Murad is short ten roubles.’

57. hate ( [ĉə-]maʁ ):

Valency pattern: MAL_ABS
X: MAL
Y: ABS
Locus: X
fatíma murád də-l-ĉə́-maʁ-b
pn pn 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . f . io - mal -hate- npst . dcl
‘Fatima hates Murad.’

58. like ( gʷapχa ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
murád arə́j as j-gʷapχ-ə́j-d
pn prox def +shirt 3 sg . m . erg -like- prs - dcl
‘Murad likes this shirt.’

59. need ( [zə-]bža ):

Valency pattern: ABS_BEN
X: ABS
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
rasúl aχč’á d-a-zə́-bža-b
pn money 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . n . io - ben -need- npst . dcl
‘Rasul needs money.’

60. surround ( ʕa-q̇ʷ-r.ša ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
a-bɮə́n-kʷa a-gorad ʕá-ḳʷ-də-r-š-əj-d
def -wall- pl def -city cisl - loc -3 pl . erg - caus -divide- prs - dcl
‘The walls surround the city.’

61. remain ( [zə-]ʕa-n-χa ):

Valency pattern: BEN_ABS
X: BEN
Y: ABS
Locus: X
rasúl ẑa–dollar-ḳ j-zə́-ʕa-n-χa-d
pn ten–dollar- unit 3 pl . abs +3 sg . m . io - ben - cisl - loc -become( aor )- dcl
‘Rasul has ten dollars left.’

62. answer ( ǯawap tə ):

Valency pattern: ERG_IO
X: ERG
Y: IO
Locus: Y
murád arə́pχ’aʕʷ ǯawap lə-j-t-ṭ
pn def +teacher answer 3 sg . f . io -3 sg . m . erg -give( aor )- dcl
‘Murad answered the teacher.’

63. open ( qə-ṭə ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
á-č’ḳʷən a-bánka ʕa-qə-j-ṭə́-d
def -boy def -jar cisl - loc -3 sg . m . erg -open- dcl
‘The boy opened the jar.’

64. be different ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

65. fall behind ( ʕa-[χ’ə-]ŝa ):

Valency pattern: ABS_LOCxe
X: ABS
Y: LOCxe
Locus: Y
rasúl zaréma d-ʕá-l-χ’-ŝa-d
pn pn 3 sg . h . abs - cisl -3 sg . f . io - loc -fall( aor )- dcl
‘Rasul fell behind Zarema.’

66. plough ( ĉaʁʷa ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
a-qác̣a j-ádg’əl j-ĉaʁʷ-ə́j-d
def -man 3 sg . m . io -ground 3 sg . m . erg -plough- prs - dcl
‘The man is ploughing the field.’

67. smell ( fʕʷə́ qə-ha ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
s-náṗ-kʷa benzín–fʕʷə r-qə́-h-əj-d
1 sg . io -hand- pl gasoline–smell 3 pl . io - loc -smell- prs - dcl
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as part of a nominal compound.

68. cross ( [qə-]sə ):

Valency pattern: ABS_LOCqe
X: ABS
Y: LOCqe
Locus: Y
a-phʷə́s á-mʕʷa d-a-qə́-s-d
def -woman def -road 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . n . io - loc -hit( aor )- dcl
‘The woman crossed the road.’

69. sing ( hʷa ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
fatíma warad–pšʒa l-hʷa-d
pn song–beautiful 3 sg . f . erg -say( aor )- dcl
‘Fatima sang a beautiful song.’

70. write ( ʕʷə ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
zarema pismo l-ʕʷə-d
pn letter 3 sg . f . erg -write( aor )- dcl
‘Zarema wrote a letter.’

71. drink ( ẑə ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
murád a-χš jə-ẑ-d
pn def -milk 3 sg . m . erg -drink( aor )- dcl
‘Murad drank the milk.’

72. melt ( r.ĉa ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
a-nχaʕʷə́ ájχa–čət-ḳ jə́-r-ĉa-d
def -worker metal–piece- indf 3 sg . m . erg - caus -melt( aor )- dcl
‘The worker melted a piece of metal.’

73. match ( [n-]ʕal ):

Valency pattern: ABS_LOCne
X: ABS
Y: LOCne
Locus: Y
arə́j a-mʔá s-ʔaχʷtán j-á-n-ʕal-əj-d
prox def -belt 1 sg . io -dress 3 sg . n . abs -3 sg . n . io - loc -match- prs - dcl
‘The belt matches my dress.’

74. leave ( [t-]c̣ə ):

Valency pattern: ABS_LOCte
X: ABS
Y: LOCte
Locus: Y
rasúl á-q̇ala d-tə-c̣-d
pn def -city 3 sg . h . abs - loc -pass( aor )- dcl
‘Rasul left his native city.’

75. cover ( q-ʕʷa ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
a-pól šabgə́w a-q̇adába j-q-na-ʕʷ-ə́j-d
def -floor fully def -carpet 3 sg . n . abs - loc -3 sg . n . erg -close- prs - dcl
‘The carpet covers the whole floor.’

76. remember ( dər.χ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
murád bzə́j-ta j-də́r-χ-əj-d a-tʒə́ d-ʕa-ʒə.n-gə́lə-z
pn good- adv 3 sg . n . abs +3 sg . m . erg -know- re - prs - dcl def -house 3 sg . h . abs - cisl - loc -rise- pst . nfin
‘Murad remembers the house where he grew up well.’

77. help ( [c-]qraʕa ):

Valency pattern: ABS_COM
X: ABS
Y: COM
Locus: Y
l-an zaréma də-l-c-qráʕa-d
3 sg . f . io -mother pn 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . f . io - com -help( aor )- dcl
‘Mother helped Zarema.’

78. understand (language) ( ʕa-[gʷə.n-]ʕʷə ):

Valency pattern: LOCgwene_ABS
X: LOCgwene
Y: ABS
Locus: X
fatíma francúz–bəzŝá ʕá-l-gʷə.n-ʕʷ-əj-d
pn f rench–language cisl -3 sg . f . io - loc -understand- prs - dcl
‘Fatima understands French.’

79. hit (target) ( [kʷ-]ŝa ):

Valency pattern: ABS_LOCkwe
X: ABS
Y: LOCkwe
Locus: Y
a-c a-tʒə́ j-á-kʷ-ŝa-d
def -lightning def -house 3 sg . n . abs -3 sg . n . io - loc -fall( aor )- dcl
‘The lightning hit the house.’

80. cut oneself ( p-q̇ə ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
murád a-brítva d-p-na-q̇ə́-d
pn def -razor 3 sg . h . abs - loc -3 sg . n . erg -cut( aor )- dcl
‘The razor cut Murad.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

81. get stuck ( [ḳə.d-]χal ):

Valency pattern: ABS_LOCkede
X: ABS
Y: LOCkede
Locus: Y
a-stakán a-stól j-ḳə́.d-χal-d
def -glass def -table 3 sg . n . abs - loc -stick( aor )- dcl
‘The glas got stuck to the table.’

82. lose (game) ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

83. be glad ( aj.gʷərʁ’a ):

Valency pattern: ABS_IO
X: ABS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
murád a-saɮámŝʔa d-áj.gʷərʁ’a-d
pn def -letter 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . n . io +rejoice( aor )- dcl
‘Murad was glad about the letter.’

84. speak ( a(j).ĉaẑa ):

Valency pattern: ABS_IO
X: ABS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
murád sará s-aχš’á d-l-á.ĉaẑ-əj-d
pn i 1 sg . io -sister 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . f . io -talk- prs - dcl
‘Murad is speaking with my sister.’

85. give birth ( ʕa-rə-j ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
fatíma č’ḳʷən–χʷə́c d-ʕa-l-rə́-j-d
pn boy-little 3 sg . h . abs - cisl -3 sg . f . erg - caus -come( aor )- dcl
‘Fatime gave birth to a son.’

86. drop ( ḳa-rə.ŝ ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
á-č’ḳʷən a-stakán ḳa-j-rə́-ŝ-d
def -boy def -glass loc -3 sg . m . erg - caus -fall( aor )- dcl
‘The boy dropped the glass.’

87. govern ( n(a)q̇ʷə-ga ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
arəj a-qáca h-kə́t j-nq̇ʷə-j-g-əj-d
prox def -man 1 pl . io -village 3 sg . n . abs - loc -3 sg . m . erg -carry- prs - dcl
‘This man runs our village.’

88. miss ( ʕa-gʷalaŝa ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
murád j-aχš’á d-ʕá-j-gʷalaŝ-əj-d
pn 3 sg . m . io -sister 3 sg . h . abs - cisl -3 sg . m . erg -miss- prs - dcl
‘Murad misses his sister.’

89. follow ( [c̣əqʷa] ta-gəla ):

Valency pattern: ABS_jceqwa
X: ABS
Y: jceqwa
Locus: Y
rasúl j-aš’á j-c̣ə́qʷa d-ta-gəla-b
pn 3 sg . m . io -brother 3 sg . m . io -tail 3 sg . h . abs - loc -stand- npst . dcl
‘Rasul follows his brother.’

90. dismount ( ʕa-[ḳ.nə-]c̣ə ):

Valency pattern: ABS_LOCkne
X: ABS
Y: LOCkne
Locus: Y
a-č-kʷá ŝ-ʕa-r-ḳ.nə́-m-c̣ə-n
def -horse- pl 2 pl . abs - cisl -3 pl . io - loc - neg -pass- neg . imp
‘Don’t get down from the horses!’

91. listen ( [z-]ʒərʕʷ ):

Valency pattern: ABS_BEN
X: ABS
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
zaréma rádia d-a-z-ʒərʕʷ-ə́j-d
pn radio 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . n . io - ben -listen- prs - dcl
‘Zarema is listening to radio.’

92. obey ( [z-]ʒərʕʷ ):

Valency pattern: ABS_BEN
X: ABS
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
rasúl j-an d-lə-z-ʒərʕʷ-ə́j-d
pn 3 sg . m . io -mother 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . f . io - ben -listen- prs - dcl
‘Rasul obeys his mother.’

93. hear ( ʕa ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
fatíjma múzəka l-ʕ-əj-d
pn music 3 sg . f . erg -hear- prs - dcl
‘Fatima hears the music.’

94. mix ( [la-]l ):

Valency pattern: ABS_LOCla
X: ABS
Y: LOCla
Locus: Y
á-cχa á-χš j-a-lá-l-d
def -honey def -milk 3 sg . n . abs -3 sg . n . io - loc -enter( aor )- dcl
‘The honey got mixed with the milk.’

95. look ( pšə ):

Valency pattern: ABS_IO
X: ABS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
fatíma á-psthʷa-kʷa də-r-pš-ə́j-ṭ
pn def -cloud- pl 3 sg . h . abs -3 pl . io -look- prs - dcl
‘Fatima is looking at the clouds.’

96. take off ( [ŝə-]χ ):

Valency pattern: LOCsERG_ABS
X: LOCsERG
Y: ABS
Locus: X
rasúl j-ás jə-ŝ-jə-χ-ṭ
pn 3 sg . m . io -shirt 3 sg . m . io - loc -3 sg . m . erg -take_off( aor )- dcl
‘Rasul took off his shirt.’
Note: The X argument is indexed on the verb twice (in the ergative slot and in the slot associated with the locative preverb ŝ-).

97. dream (sleeping) ( aj.pχəz ):

Valency pattern: ABS_IO
X: ABS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
murád zaréma d-l-áj.pχəz-əj-ṭ
pn pn 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . f . io -dream- prs - dcl
‘Murad dreams about Zarema.’

98. agree ( aj.gʷənʕʷ ):

Valency pattern: ABS_IO
X: ABS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
rasúl fatíma d-l-áj.gʷənʕʷ-ṭ
pn pn 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . f . io -agree( aor )- dcl
‘Rasul agreed with Fatima.’

99. have a quarrel ( aj.s ):

Valency pattern: ABS_IO
X: ABS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
w-ʕa-s-m-áj.sə-n
2 sg . m . abs - cisl -1 sg . io - neg -swear- neg . imp
‘Don’t (have a) quarrel with me!’

100. cost ( χʷə ):

Valency pattern: IO_ABS
X: IO
Y: ABS
Locus: X
arjə́ ápχ’aga som-ŝ-ḳ j-a-χʷ-ṗ
prox def +book rouble-hundred- unit 3 sg . n . abs -3 sg . n . io -price- npst . dcl
‘This book costs one hundred roubles.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

101. shoot at ( aj.χs ):

Valency pattern: ABS_IO
X: ABS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
w-ʕa-s-m-aj.χsə-n
2 sg . m . abs - cisl -1 sg . io - neg -shoot- neg . imp
‘Dont shoot at me!’

102. pour ( ta-psa ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
á-č’ḳʷən fač’ə́ʕʷ ʕa-ta-j-psá-ṭ
def -boy sugar cisl - loc -3 sg . m . erg -pour( aor )- dcl
‘The boy poured some sugar.’

103. lose ( [ĉ-]ʒə ):

Valency pattern: MAL_ABS
X: MAL
Y: ABS
Locus: X
á-č’ḳʷən a-c̣apχa-kʷá j-ĉə́-ʒ-ṭ
def -boy def -key- pl 3 sg . m . io - mal -get_lost( aor )- dcl
‘The boy lost his keys.’

104. sink ( [c̣a-]ŝq̇ʷal ):

Valency pattern: ABS_LOCca
X: ABS
Y: LOCca
Locus: Y
a-mč̣χə́ a-ʒə́ j-c̣a-ŝḳʷál-ṭ
def -log def -water 3 sg . n . abs - loc -sink( aor )- dcl
‘The log sank to water.’

105. kill ( š’ə ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
murád a-ʁá də-j-š’ə́-d
pn def -enemy 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . m . erg -kill( aor )- dcl
‘Murad killed the enemy.’

106. hit ( ):

Valency pattern: ABS_IO
X: ABS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
a-ʁa a-phʷə́s d-lə-s-ṭ
def -enemy def -woman 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . f . io -hit( aor )- dcl
‘The enemy hit the woman.’

107. kiss ( ba hʷə ):

Valency pattern: ERG_IO
X: ERG
Y: IO
Locus: Y
fatíma l-aš’á ba j-a-l-hʷ-ṭ
pn 3 sg . f . io -brother kiss 3 sg . m . io - dat -3 sg . f . erg -say( aor )- dcl
‘Fatima kissed her brother.’

108. read ( pχ’a ):

Valency pattern: ABS_IO
X: ABS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
a-phʷə́spa k’tap–ǯ’aš’áqʷa-ḳ d-á-pχ’a-ṭ
def -girl book–interesting- indf 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . n . io -read( aor )- dcl
‘The girl read an interesting book.’

109. move (bodypart) ( rə.c̣əs ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
á-č’ḳʷən jə́-maĉ j-rə́-c̣s-ṭ
def -boy 3 sg . m . io -finger 3 sg . m . erg - caus -move( aor )- dcl
‘The boy moved his finger.’

110. respect ( χʷə [kʷ-]c̣a ):

Valency pattern: ERG_LOCkwe
X: ERG
Y: LOCkwe
Locus: Y
rasúl fatíma χʷə lə́-kʷə-j-c̣-əj-ṭ
pn pn price 3 sg . f . io - loc -3 sg . m . erg -put- prs - dcl
‘Rasul respects Fatima.’

111. be squeamish ( [ĉ-]maχača ):

Valency pattern: ABS_MAL
X: ABS
Y: MAL
Locus: Y
zaréma á-maĉa–ḟej d-a-ĉə́-maχač-əj-ṭ
pn def -dishes–dirty 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . n . io - mal -be_squeamish- prs - dcl
‘Zarema is squeamish about dirty dishes.’

112. be content ( [zə-]raz ):

Valency pattern: ABS_BEN
X: ABS
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
sará awə́j sə-l-zə́-raz-ṗ
i dist 1 sg . abs -3 sg . f . io - ben -content- npst . dcl
‘I am content with her.’

113. fall in love ( aj.hʷapsa ):

Valency pattern: ABS_IO
X: ABS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
rasúl fatíma d-l-áj.hʷapsa-ṭ
pn pn 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . f . io -fall_in_love( aor )- dcl
‘Rasul fell in love with Fatima.’

114. trust ( [z-]qa-c̣a ):

Valency pattern: ERG_BEN
X: ERG
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
fatíma murád jə-z-qá-l-c̣-əj-ṭ
pn pn 3 sg . m . io - ben - loc -3 sg . f . erg -believe- prs - dcl
‘Fatima trusts Murad.’

115. sympathise ( [ma-]rəcha ):

Valency pattern: JUD_ABS
X: JUD
Y: ABS
Locus: X
rasúl j-an d-jə́-ma-rəcha-ṗ
pn 3 sg . m . io -mother 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . m . io - jud -poor- npst . dcl
‘Rasul sympathises with his mother.’

116. envy ( [c-]n-χč’alə ):

Valency pattern: ABS_COM
X: ABS
Y: COM
Locus: Y
wə-s-c-nə́-m-χč’alə-n
2 sg . m . abs -1 sg . io - com - loc - neg -envy- neg . imp
‘Don’t envy me!’

117. be angry ( [z-]gʷəẑḳə ):

Valency pattern: ABS_BEN
X: ABS
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
á-č’ḳʷən j-aš’á d-jə-z-gʷə́ẑḳ-əj-ṭ
def -boy def -brother 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . m . io - ben -be_angry- prs - dcl
‘The boy is angry with his brother.’

118. be surprised ( ǯ’a-š’a ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
murád awə́j a-sawʕá ǯ’a-j-š’á-ṭ
pn dist def -gift loc -3 sg . erg -wonder( aor )- dcl
‘Murad was surprised with this gift.’

119. love (tea) ( bzəj ba ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
zaréma č’aj bzəj jə-l-b-ə́j-d
pn tea good 3 sg . n . abs -3 sg . f . erg -see- prs - dcl
‘Zarema loves tea.’

120. enjoy ( Х-gʷə Х-r.ĉ̣ə ):

Valency pattern: ERG_NONARG.INS
X: ERG
Y: NONARG_INS
Locus: Y
zaréma č’aj–blə-la l-gʷə lə-r-ĉ̣-əj-d
pn tea–hot- ins 3 sg . f . io -heart 3 sg . f . erg - caus -get_sour- prs - dcl
‘Zarema enjoys hot tea.’
Note: Y is expressed as a dependent-marked adjunct, unindexed on the verb.

121. want ( taqə ):

Valency pattern: IO_ABS
X: IO
Y: ABS
Locus: X
rasúl χabar.rgága–čəc̣ j-taqə́-b
pn announcement–new 3 sg . m . io -want- npst . dcl
‘Rasul wants a new mobile phone.’

122. have a grudge ( [z-]gʷəẑḳə ):

Valency pattern: ABS_BEN
X: ABS
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
á-č’ḳʷən j-aš’á d-jə-z-gʷə́ẑḳ-əj-ṭ
def -boy def -brother 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . m . io - ben -be_angry- prs - dcl
‘The boy is angry with his brother.’

123. take offence ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

124. upset ( Y-gʷə X-s ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
murád zaréma l-gʷə d-a-s-ṭ
pn pn 3 sg . f . io -heart 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . n . io -beat( aor )- dcl
‘Murad upset Zarema.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

125. marvel ( ǯ’a-š’a ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
rasul á-q̇ala χʷábəž-ta j-ǯ’a-j-š’a-d
pn def -city strong- adv 3 sg . n . abs - loc -3 sg . m . erg -wonder( aor )- dcl
‘Rasul marvelled at this city.’

126. despise ( ba g’awam ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
fatíma murád də-l-bá g’-awá-m
pn pn 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . f . erg -see neg -can- neg
‘Fatima can’t see Murad.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

127. get upset ( * ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

128. get irritated ( X-gʷə Y-kʷ-ŝaχ + NEG ):

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
rasúl j-pha j-gʷə d-g’ə́-kʷ-ŝaχ-wa-m
pn 3 sg . m . io -daughter 3 sg . m . io -heart 3 sg . h . abs - neg - loc -compensate- ipf - neg
‘Rasul is getting irritated with his daughter’ (lit. ‘Rasul’s daughter does not fit into his heart’).
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

129. be fond ( gʷapχa ):

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
b-sə-m-gʷapχá-za-rkʷənə-z b-g’-ʕá-zə-m-g-wa-šə-z-d
2 sg . f . abs -1 sg . erg - neg -like- pst . nfin - cond - pst . nfin 2 sg . abs - neg - cisl -1 sg . erg - neg -carry- ipf - fut - pst . nfin - dcl
‘If I had not liked you, I would not have married you.’

130. be shy ( [ĉ-]pχaš’a ):

Valency pattern: ABS_MAL
X: ABS
Y: MAL
Locus: Y
rasúl j-hára d-a-ĉ-pχaš’-ə́j-d
pn 3 sg . m . io -height 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . n . io - mal -be_ashamed- prs - dcl
‘Rasul is shy about his height.’